There has been a lot of debate regarding the age of the Pyramids of Giza. before talking about the Pyramids, we focus on the ancient Egyptian civilization. According to conventional Egyptian chronology, the Egyptian civilization coalesced around 3150 BC, when upper and lower Egypt were unified under the rule of one Pharaoh.
The ancient Egyptian civilization flourished thanks to their ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley where they developed excellent agricultural abilities. Scorpion I was the first of two kings so-named of Upper Egypt during the Protodynastic Period. His name may refer to the scorpion goddess Serket.
How the Pyramids were built is a source of speculation and debate. The age of the Pyramids of Giza is an uncertainty, as archaeologists cannot place the construction of these incredible monuments to a specific date. According to historical analysis the ancient Egyptians built the Giza Pyramids; Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure in a span of 85 years somewhere between 2589 and 2504 BC. The radiocarbon dates for the Great Pyramid that were performed in studies in the 1980’s ranged from 2853 to 3809 BC.
Researchers have had a difficult time dating the Pyramids of Giza since radiocarbon dating cannot be applied to stone, but can date fragments of organic material found in the vicinity of these ancient constructions.
While there are scholars who agree on an age of at least 4,500 years, there have been several theories postulated about the exact age of the Pyramids, theories that follow the theories of the use and purpose of these monuments. Some researchers have come forward claiming that the Pyramids of Giza are much older than we think. Researchers point towards erosion patterns from the Great Sphinx enclosure suggesting a far older date than what modern day Egyptologists propose.
Researchers performed around fifteen radiocarbon dating from the Great Pyramid of Giza, the oldest radiocarbon date from the great pyramid came from the 198th course (3809 BC). The youngest from a mortar of lime from the 2nd course. (Ref: Journal of African Civilisations Vol 12. 1994)
Research has been performed on the Great Sphinx as well, another subject of debate between researchers worldwide; According to the studies, the Sphinx gave radiocarbon dates of 2085 BC and 2746 BC .
Of course radiocarbon dating can have several flaws and may not be extremely accurate. According to the Thelegraph;
An Anglo-American team found large variations in levels of the carbon-14 isotope, used as the basis of carbon dating, preserved in a 19in stalagmite recovered from a submerged cave in the Blue Holes of the Bahamas, limestone caverns created when sea levels were nearly 330ft lower than today.
These findings suggested dramatic changes in the amount of radioactive carbon in Earth’s atmosphere during the last Ice Age, much greater than previously thought, probably as a result of changes in the strength of the planet’s magnetic field.
During the Old Kingdom, Ancient Egypt enjoyed major advances in architecture, art, and technology due to the increased agricultural productivity and resulting population.
Khufu’s Pyramid was the tallest building in the world until the 14th century, when the Lincoln Cathedral was constructed in England. The great Pyramid of Giza was finally constructed, according to mainstream archaeology by 2560 BC. Most accepted construction hypotheses between scholars is based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry, dragging and lifting them into place. Modern theories disagree completely with this proposed method.
Wikipedia / The Telegraph