This Is The World’s Largest Cave, And It Can Fit 4 Great Pyramids Inside It

There are truly mysterious places on Earth and this supermassive cave is surely one such place. Seeing the footage from inside the cave will surely give you goosebumps.

Image Credit: National Geographic.

One of them is a supermassive cave that can fit four Great Pyramids inside it. Its one of the worlds largest cave chambers, and entering it feels like a journey to the underworld.

The cave is located in the mountainous region of Ziyoun County in China. The Miao Room cavern measures 380.7 million cubic feet—10.78 million cubic meters—in volume. The cave system can fit up to 22 football fields and is located around 325 feet below the surface.


Furthermore, the 2,795 feet-long cave chambers can also comfortably fit a Boeing 747. 

The supermassive structure is composed of eight main caverns and more than 200 entrances.

In fact, the cave is so big that it is considered the largest cave in the world in terms of volume and is the second largest cave in terms of surface area.

Having approximate dimensions of about nine kilometers, Hang Son Doong has its own underground river and impressive vegetation that forms a dense jungle.

Studies carried out by the group of scientists of the British Association of Cave Research as well as those of the National Geographic cartography team, who analyzed the measurements of the cave system, found that the largest cavity has more than five kilometers in length, it is 200 meters high and 150 meters wide. While the cave itself was first documented by a Chinese-European geology team in 1989, its true size was not determined until 2013.

Image Credit: National Geographic: Juan Velasco/Martin Gamache/Lauren James/NGM Staff/Stefan Fichtel/Ixtract Gmbh/Joe Beeching

During several expeditions, the teams also discovered stalagmites with more than 70 meters in height.

But not only does this massive cave system features its own underground river and jungle, it is also decorated with a maze of fossils and crystals.

Source: The ‘supercave’ that can fit four Great Pyramids inside

Here’s A Detailed Look Into The Mysterious Osiris Shaft Beneath The Pyramids Of Giza

If you travel to the Giza plateau, you should know that there are many incredible things to explore, in addition to the three main pyramids.

One such fantastic feature is the so-called Tomb of Osiris, or commonly referred to as the Osiris Shaft.

Located beneath the stone causeway of the Pyramid of Khafre, this enigmatic tomb is a mysterious structure composed of various intricately carved levels beneath the surface.

Despite the fact that its existence has been known for a few years, it wasn’t until recently that the structure was adequately excavated and documented.

In ancient times, the shaft was used by people as a swimming hole since it was filled with water.

Selim Hassan and his team were one of the first to explore the shaft in the 1930‘s, but it wasn’t until 1999 when the structure was fully excavated by Zahi Hawass. By 1999 the water levels at the Giza plateau had lowered to the point that a detailed excavation was possible.

Here is Selim Hassan’s description of the Osiris Shaft:

Selim Hassan’s 1933-34 excavations report for Giza.

“Upon the surface of the causeway, they first built a platform in the shape of a mastaba, using stones taken from the ruins of the covered corridor of the causeway. In the centre of this superstructure, they sank a shaft, which passed through the roof and floor of the subway running under the causeway to a depth of about 9.00 m. At the bottom of this shaft is a rectangular chamber, in the floor of the eastern side of which is another shaft. This descends about 14.00 m. and terminates in a spacious hall surrounded by seven burial-chambers, in each of which is a sarcophagus. Two of these sarcophagi, which are of basalt and are monolithic, are so enormous that at first, we wondered if they contained the bodies of sacred bulls.”

It was revealed that the shaft is composed of three different levels.

The first level was found to be empty.

The second level is a tunnel that leads into a room with six other chambers carved out of the stone walls. Inside these chambers, researchers have recovered pottery sherds, ceramic beads, and ushabtis (small servant figurines).

Furthermore, basalt sarcophagi were found in Chambers C, D, and G; badly decomposed skeletal remains were found in the sarcophagi in Chambers C and G. Based on stylistic grounds the artifacts, sarcophagi included, date to Dynasty 26 (ibid: 386-87).

An overview of the Osiris Shaft.

In the lowest chamber of the Osiris shaft, some 30 meters below the surface lies a mystery described by Herodotus, which was written off as a myth by mainstream scholars.

However, it turned out that Herodotus was right all along, and mainstream scholars were wrong.

The lowest chamber of the shaft is a sort of subterranean hall, and inside it lies a sarcophagus, perfectly preserved and empty. The third level of the Osiris Shaft is found to be more complex regarding design and architecture.

The most important discovery made in the third level of the Osiris Shaft was red-polished pottery, containing traces of white paint. Experts managed to date back the pottery remains to the 6thy dynasty, from the end of the Old Kingdom.

This means that the pottery recovered in the third level is, in fact, the oldest possible datable material in the entire complex.

Based on research and archeological evidence recovered throughout the years, the Osiris Shaft is believed to date originally from the Old Kingdom, more precisely to the Sixth Dynasty (2355-2195 BCE).

The Osiris shaft was opened to the public for the first time in 2017.

Recently, author and researcher Brien Foerster explored the Osiris Shaft.

The result?

A magnificent insight into the mysterious shaft proving that despite the fact that we know a lot about ancient Egypt, there are many details we have still not uncovered.

Check out the video:

Brien Foerster and his team will return to the Giya plateau in April 2019. For more information check this out.

Zahi Hawass’s essay about the Osiris Shaft can be downloaded from this link: The Discovery of the Osiris Shaft at Giza.

The Shigir Idol Was Crafted By Survivors Of Last Ice Age, And Is Twice As Old As The Pyramids

The results of a recent study performed on the Shigir Idol—considered the OLDEST monumental art in history—and published in the scientific journal Antiquity has determined that this incredible ancient statue was carved around 11,600 years ago, by the survivors of the last Ice Age.

This makes this enigmatic idol twice as old as Egypt’s pyramids — and 6000 years older than Stonehenge.

When it was crafted, nearly twelve thousand years ago, the enigmatic Shigir Idol is believed to have stood 16 feet tall and was covered in countless ancient symbols.

Many experts around the world refer to it as the oldest piece on monumental art, and it was crafted by a mysterious people who survived the last ice age, some 12,000 years ago.

The idol was crafted from a single trunk of Larchwood and was carved into a smooth plank. Covered with intricately engraved patterns, the Shigir idol was topped with a stylized, human-like head.

The statue may have been crafted by the survivors of the last Ice Age, some 11,600 years ago. Image Credit: Antiquity.

The enigmatic idol was discovered in Russia in 1894 in Russia and survived a number of natural disasters including several fires.

It’s actually a miracle it was found.

Experts referred to the idol as the oldest evidence of monumental art, but experts weren’t one hundred percent sure as to exactly how old it was.

According to scientists from the Russian Academy of Sciences and the University of Göttingen, a new analysis calculated that the idol is around 11,600 years ago.

What does this mean? Well, the last Ice Age ended some 11,700 years ago, which means that it was most likely crafted by people who survived the last ice age.

“Recent application of new analytical techniques has led to the discovery of new imagery on its surface and has pushed the date of the piece back to the earliest Holocene. The results of these recent analyses are placed here in the context of local and extra-local traditions of comparable prehistoric art. This discussion highlights the unique nature of the find and its significance for appreciating the complex symbolic world of Early Holocene hunter-gatherers.”

“We have to conclude hunter-gatherers had complex ritual and expression of ideas. Ritual doesn’t start with farming, but with hunter-gatherers,” Thomas Terberger said, via Science magazine, an archaeologist at the University of Göttingen in Germany and a co-author of the study.

It was reported initially that the first radiocarbon tests of the Shigir Idol revealed it was around 9,800 years old. This age caused quite a debate in the scientific community because experts refused to acknowledge that ‘hunter-gatherers’ at that time were able to create such a complex piece of art.

But the more experts dig into the matter, to more mysterious and fascinating it gets.

“The further you go inside, the older [the date] becomes—it’s very indicative some sort of preservative or glue was used” Olaf Jöris, an archaeologist at the Monrepos Archaeological Research Centre and Museum for Human Behavioural Evolution—who wasn’t involved with the study—told Science magazine.

The statue is evidence that “Early Holocene hunter-gatherers clearly inhabited a symbolic world with richer and more complex forms of artistic expression than was previously believed,” the study’s authors wrote.


Featured Image Credit: D. Lobanov.

The 12,000-Year-Old Bosnian Pyramids, A Massive Archaeological Cover-Up?

The fact that Pyramids are scattered across the planet isn’t a surprise. From America to Asia, archaeologists have found how nearly all ancient cultures built massive monuments thousands of years ago. Some of them served as tombs, while the purpose of many other pyramids remains a mystery.

But this fact alone is why it isn’t surprising to hear that Pyramids have also been found in Europe, more precisely Bosnia.

An illustration of the largest of the pyramids near Visoko.

According to many authors, the Bosnian Pyramid Complex is around 12,000 years old and was built by a mysterious people near Sarajevo, the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The structures were discovered back in 20015, when Dr. Semir Osmanagic announced he had discovered, beneath the hills of Visoko, a pyramidal complex and, which in addition to being one of the largest on Earth, was interconnected through a network of underground tunnels.

Dr. Osmanagic not only claims to have discovered four pyramids but he, as well as many other authors, are convinced that these pyramids are traces of a lost people.

His thesis holds that both the Mesoamerican and Egyptian pyramids are the work of the same people who built the four pyramids of Bosnia Herzegovina and that the pyramidal complex could be, according to his words, “the mother of all the pyramids.”

The Pyramid Valley in Bosnia.

In 2006, a great project was set up to restore the top of the Pyramid of the Sun.

Dr. Osmanagic assures that it is the most important of the four Pyramids measuring 360 meters in height.

Back then, the Bosnian Government made available the necessary funds to continue the excavation work in the Visoko region.

Dr. Osmanagic claimed that, over the centuries, some of the pyramids had lost their shape and that the material covering the Pyramids today did not allow to appreciate their geometry, so it was necessary to properly excavate them.

The decision of the Bosnian Government to fund the project raised a controversy in the European Association of Archaeologists, which was forced, in 2006, to write a manifesto against the decision of the Government of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

The massive Pyramid is said to hide in plain sight.

“We, the undersigned professional archaeologists from all parts of Europe, wish to protest strongly at the continuing support by the Bosnian authorities for the so-called “pyramid” project being conducted on hills at and near Visoko. This scheme is a cruel hoax on an unsuspecting public and has no place in the world of genuine science. It is a waste of scarce resources that would be much better used in protecting the genuine archaeological heritage and is diverting attention from the pressing problems that are affecting professional archaeologists in Bosnia-Herzegovina on a daily basis.”

Some authors consider that the document was a massive cover-up. The letter was signed by Hermann Parzinger, President of German Archaeological Institute in Berlin; Willem Willems, Inspector General of Rijksinspectie Archeologie in The Hague; Jean-Paul Demoule, President of the Institut nationale de recherches archéologiques préventives (INRAP) in Paris; Romuald Schild, Director of the Institute of Archaeology and Ethnology of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw; Vassil Nikolov, Director of the Institute of Archaeology of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences in Sofia; Anthony Harding, President of the European Association of Archaeologists; and Mike Heyworth, Director of the Council for British Archaeology in York.

But why go through so much to stop excavations?

After all, if there aren’t any pyramids in Bosnia, why go through such an effort to stop the man? Why not let him dig? Time would eventually tell who was right, whether it was Dr. Osmanagic or all other archaeologists who were against the excavation process.

What the pyramid may have looked like, according to authors who consider the Pyramids of Visoko are real.

That’s because according to some experts, ‘genuine archaeological sites’ from the region could perish if the excavations go through.

According to reports, archaeological excavations in the summer of 2008 by archaeologists who are not related to Osmanagić’s Foundation uncovered medieval artifacts, which led to renewed calls for the government to cancel Osmanagić’s digging permits.

Amar Karapuš, a curator at the Historical Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, said, “When I first read about the pyramids I thought it was a very funny joke. I just couldn’t believe that anyone in the world could believe this.”

Garrett Fagan of Penn State University is quoted as saying, “They should not be allowed to destroy genuine sites in the pursuit of these delusions[…] It’s as if someone was permitted to bulldoze Stonehenge to find secret chambers of lost ancient wisdom underneath.”

Enver Imamović of the University of Sarajevo, a former director of the National Museum of Sarajevo, concerned that the excavations will damage historic sites such as the medieval royal capital Visoki, said that the excavations would “irreversibly destroy a national treasure.”

Furthermore, mainstream scholars such as Curtis Runnels, an American expert on prehistoric Greece and the Balkans from Boston University, claimed that the people who inhabited Bosnia and Herzegovina in the past, were a primitive people who were small in number and who “did not have the tools or skills to engage in the construction of monumental architecture.”

But Runnels, for example, is clearly underestimating the ancient people that lived in these areas thousands of years ago.

One clear example is the Vinca Culture, an ancient people who occupied the region of Southeastern Europe (i.e. the Balkans) corresponding mainly to modern-day Serbia but also parts of Romania, Bulgaria, Bosnia, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, and Greece. This ancient culture, which existed around 10,000 years ago created the so-called Vinča symbols, which some believe are the earliest form of proto-writing. The Vinča culture also provides the earliest known example of copper metallurgy.

But despite received heavy criticism from ‘mainstream experts’, Osmanagic and his team have pursued their goal firmly. As a Bosnian, Osmanagic surely isn’t interested in destroying the rich history of the countries culture, and according to many, his only goal is to reveal an even richer history of not only the country he comes from but the ancient people that once inhabited these parts of Europe.

The Pyramids Of Giza As Seen From Space Photographed By the ESA

Who said you can’t see the Pyramids of Giza from space? A new image provided by ESA’s Proba-1 spacecraft has captured in stunning detail the Pyramids of the Giza plateau, proving that you can, in fact, see the magnificent structures from space.

The Great Pyramid of Giza and its accompanying structures located on the Giza plateau have remained an enigma for archaeologists and scholars for hundreds of years.

Shrouded in mystery, the Great Pyramid of Giza is without a doubt one of the most mind-boggling monuments ever erected on Earth, and its beauty is even visible from space.

The European Space Agency recently published a stunning image of the Giza plateau starring the Pyramids of Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.

As the ESA’s Proba-1 Spacecraft passed over Egypt, its cameras caught a glimpse of the stunning ancient monuments. Proba-1 is a Belgian satellite that was outfitted with two cameras capable of capturing high-resolution images of the planet. The minisatellite, launched in 2001, is the ESA’s longest-serving Earth-observing mission, reports CNET.

A view looking north to south of Egypt’s famous Giza Pyramid Complex, as seen by ESA’s Proba-1 minisatellite. Image Credit: ESA

The space agency decided to share the image of the bird’s-eye view of the Giza pyramid complex on Wednesday.

ESA’s photograph offers a perspective from north to south.

At the center of the image is we can see the smaller Pyramid of Menkaure, said to have been built to house the tomb of the fourth dynasty Egyptian pharaoh for which it is named.

If we take a look to the left of Menakure, we will spot the larger pyramid of Khafre standing tall at 488 feet.

Next to it, below and to the left of Khafre, we can spot the largest of the pyramids at the Giza plateau, the Great Pyramid of Giza, aka the Pyramid of Khufu.

It is believed that the Great Pyramid of Giza was built thousands of years ago by the ancient Egyptians which erected the stunning monument in around 20 years.

The structure is believed to have been completed in 2560 BC.

Thousands of years ago, the ancient builders of the Pyramid used more than 2,300,000 stone blocks that weigh from 2 to 50 tons each to build a structure that would stand the test of time.

The outer mantle of the Great Pyramid of Giza was composed of 144,000 casing stones, all of them highly polished and flat to an accuracy of 1/100th of an inch, about 100 inches thick and weighing approximately 15 tons each.

Newgrange: An 5,000-year-old Cosmic Monument That Predates the Pyramids by 500 years

A thousand years older than Stonehenge, and 500 years older than the Pyramids of Giza, Newgrange is an ancient monument that consists of approximately 200,000 tons of rock and other materials. It is 85 meters (279 ft) wide at its widest point.

One of the most famous ancient sites in Ireland is Newgrange, a monument built between 3,300-2,900 BC according to carbon 14 tests (Grogan 1991).

This makes it 500 years older than the Great Pyramid of Giza of Egypt, and 1,000 years older than Stonehenge (although the first stages of Stonehenge are approximately about the same time as Newgrange). This ancient monument also predates the Mycenaean culture of ancient Greece.

It remained lost during more than 4,000 years due to a decrease of the mound until it was discovered in the XVII century by people who looked construction stones and described it as a cave.

Newgrange was excavated and restored between 1962 and 1975 under the supervision of Professor Michael J O’Kelly, of the Department of Archeology at the University College Cork (O’Kelly 1986).

The intricately carved monument predates the Pyramids of Giza by around 500 years. Image Credit: Shutterstock.

Most of the stones (200,000 tons of rock) come from the vicinity of the construction, although the granite and quartz stones of the façade were transported from more distant places, probably from Wicklow and Dundalk Bay, respectively.

The true purpose of this ancient monument remains a mystery, although experts believe it was a religious center of some sort.

Interestingly, Newgrange appears to be astronomically oriented: every year, on the morning of the winter solstice, sunlight penetrates the passage and illuminates the floor of the chamber for 17 minutes.

Newgrange features numerous examples of abstract Neolithic rock art. Image Credit: Shutterstock.

Some have speculated that the Sun would have had great importance in the religious beliefs of the people who built it, and others have taken the finding as a reference for archaeoastronomic studies in other similar monuments although Newgrange’s alignment is the only one that has been reliably demonstrated and it could be the result of chance.

The entire monument was intricately carved.

The Megalithic stone at the entrance of Newgrange. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

Newgrange contains numerous examples of abstract Neolithic rock art carved onto it which provide decoration, although some authors have speculated that their design is more than just art, for researchers have demonstrate a close connection between the ancient site and the sun, specifically the Winter Solstice; the rising sun shines directly along the long passage, illuminating the inner chamber and revealing the carvings inside, notably the triple spiral on the front wall of the chamber.

The carvings at Newgrange fit into ten categories, five of which are curvilinear (circles, spirals, arcs, serpentiform and dot-in-circles) and the other five of which are rectilinear (chevrons, lozenges, radials, parallel lines, and offsets).

They are also marked by wide differences in style, the skill-level that would have been needed to produce them, and on how deeply carved they are.

As for the exact purpose of the monument, several authors believe Newgrange may have been centered on astronomy, engineering, geometry, and mythology associated with the Boyne monuments.

Researchers speculate that the monument was an important astronomical center and that the sun formed a crucial part of the religious beliefs of the Neolithic people who built it.

New Images of Ancient Maya Megopolis Reveal Thousands of Lost Pyramids And Monuments

Researchers have made a mind-gobbling discovery neat Peten, deep in the Guatemalan jungle. Using LiDAR technology, researchers have found more than 60,000 previously unknown structures that were once home to a massive pre-Columbian Civilization.

With the help of revolutionary LiDAR technology (short for “Light Detection And Ranging”), modern archeologists are making history. Recently, experts have discovered tens of thousands of ancient structures belonging to the ancient Maya civilization.

The LIDAR TITAN instrument used by the PACUNAM LIDAR initiative penetrates the forest cover and the GPS instrumentation allows researchers to locate each point with millimeter accuracy. This allows the development of more accurate surface maps than with any other technology available today. Image credit: NCALM

“The LiDAR images make it clear that this entire region was a settlement system whose scale and population density had been grossly underestimated,” said Thomas Garrison, an Ithaca College archaeologist and National Geographic Explorer who specializes in using digital technology for archaeological research.

The massive pyramids, temples, palaces, and causeways were discovered hidden deep beneath the dense Guatemalan Jungle.

The discovery suggests that the ancient Maya built massive self-sustaining cities. Furthermore, the discovery has helped confirm that the Maya civilization was much larger and far more advanced than what was previously believed.

Thousands of Pyramids discovered near Peten suggest Guatemala was the center of the Maya civilization. This image shows Tikal and its massive wall. Image Credit: PACUNAM / Canuto & Auld-Thomas

As noted by researchers, LiDAR technology has also uncovered ancient engineering works and specialized agricultural areas capable of sustaining a massive population at an almost industrial level, and Jorge Mario Chajon, the  general director of the Guatemalan Tourism Institute has said; “These findings reaffirm that Guatemala is the heart of the Mayan world.”

3D view of Tikal from the southeast. Image credit: PACUNAM / Canuto & Auld-Thomas

Led by the so-called Guatemalan PACUNAM LIDAR initiative, this consortium of more than 30 scientists and archaeologists belonging to leading academic institutions worldwide, organized and funded by the PACUNAM Foundation used state-of-the-art technology to explore more than 2,000 km² of the Guatemalan Jungle north of Peten by air.

Researchers have discovered a new pyramid south of the Plaza Perdido de Tikal. Image credit: PACUNAM / Canuto & Auld-Thomas

Their discoveries were represented in a number of digital maps and in augmented reality applications that transform the aerial data into a land view, designed exclusively for the National Geographic documentary. Thankfully, all of these stunning discoveries were made without having to cut a single tree.

Discovered thanks to new LiDAR scans, Kunal is an early ceremonial center discovered by the Naachtun Archaeological Project. Image credit: PACUNAM / Estrada-Belli.

Previously a Mayan population of between 1 and 2 million inhabitants had been proposed by experts, but the new data has shown a population of about 20 million inhabitants that occupied the plains of the Mayan civilization, an amount that represents around half of the European population at that time, occupying an area the size of Italy.

Many archeological monuments remain hidden beneath the jungle and are only visible thanks to new technology. Seen here is the archaeological site of El Zotz. Image credit: PACUNAM / Garrison / El Zotz Archaeological Project

“This revelation is one of the most important developments in Mayan archeology in the last 100 years,” said Tom Garrison, of Ithaca College, one of the archaeologists leading the project.

“The Mayan wars have been the subject of research for decades and, now, the technology is revealing the physical manifestation of those past conflicts, demonstrating that they were a determining factor of the ancient Mayan culture, probably configuring the emergence and development of some of their bigger cities,” he added.

Cahokia; An Ancient American City Covered in Pyramids

Around four centuries before the arrival of Columbus to the American continent, the Native Indians of Illinois erected a city that came to support a population of more than 20,000 inhabitants. But not only did they create a sophisticated city, for some reason they built more than a hundred mysterious earthen Pyramids, which, until this day, remain a profound enigma, as well as the general history of the site and its inhabitants.

Scholars consider Cahokia as one of the most significant and most influential ancient settlements in the Mississippian culture that developed and built massive structures five hundred years before Europeans came to the New Continent.

The original name of this ancient city is unknown. The name Cahokia is borrowed from a tribe that lived nearby in the 1600’s.

The Cahokia site covered an area of nine square miles. Illustration: Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site.

Cahokia is an ancient settlement with a history that is more profound than we currently are willing to acknowledge.

Washington University’s John Kelly, a longtime stalwart of Cahokian archaeology, sums up the present understanding of Cahokia nicely: “People aren’t sure what it is.”

The first man to write about this ancient city was Henry Brackenridge, a lawyer and amateur historian who noted he was left amazed by what he had seen in 1811:

“I was struck with a degree of astonishment, not unlike that which is experienced in contemplating the Egyptian pyramids. What a stupendous pile of earth! To heap up such a mass must have required years, and the labors of thousands.”

The city, its monuments, and cultures are of great value.

Experts believe that Cahokia was the apogee and may have even been the origin of what scholars refer to as the Mississippian culture which spread across the American Midwest and Southeast starting before A.D. 1000 and peaking around the 13th century.

The building process of the city is another mystery. Researchers say that everywhere they dug, they found something of value, houses, buildings, monuments. The discoveries made at Cahokia indicate that it was a massive city, which, mysteriously, was built in an extremely brief span of time.

Image Credit:

In other words, researchers say that it seems as if the entire city ‘sprang to life almost overnight around 1050’.

People from all over the area started moving to Cahokia which allowed the creation of complex infrastructure. The Cahokians built MASSIVE mounds—earthen Pyramids, a playa with the size of 45 football fields and different ceremonial and religious monuments.

Image Credit:

To get an idea of how big the Cahokian earthen Pyramids were if you climb on top of Monks Mound, composed of 156 steps, you’d find yourself atop a structure that is larger at its base than the Great Pyramid of Giza. Now imagine the amount of work that needed to be done to create something like this around 1050.

The base circumference of Monks Mound is larger than the Pyramid of the Sun at Teotihuacan. It is believed that the inhabitants of Cahokia began building it around 900–950 CE, and was completed around 1100 CE.

Image Credit:

At its peak around 1100, the city of Cahokia covered more than five square miles and was made up of 120 earthen pyramids. The inhabitants of Cahokia were skilled farmers, traders, and hunters, but they were also excellent urban planners and used astronomical alignments—like many other cultures in the American Continent—to build a small metropolis which was more extensive than many European cities during that tie.

The Cahokians did not leave behind a written language; we don’t know what they called themselves, where they came from, why they build these massive earthen Pyramids, why so many of them, and why they disappeared.

In fact, by the time Columbus got to the Americas, the city was already a ghost town. Experts only know that the city came into existence during a favorable climate phase and began shrinking around the time the climate became cooler, drier, and less predictable.

This Is The Oldest Egyptian Papyrus Ever Found, And It Reveals How The Pyramids Were Built

Not long ago, the Cairo museum has put on display the oldest ancient Egyptian papyrus found so far, dating from the era of Pharaoh Khufu, who reigned in ancient Egypt more than 4,500 years ago.

The document mentions the construction of the Great Pyramid of Giza, west of Cairo.

This ancient manuscript was discovered with other papyri in 2013 by a team of French and Egyptian archaeologists in the Wadi Al Jarf region, in the southeast of Cairo, on the shores of the Red Sea.

The Great Pyramid of Giza is the only eight-sided Pyramid.

The papyri narrate the life of the workers who participated in the construction of the Great Pyramid of Cheops, which was erected, according to mainstream scholars, as the eternal resting place for King Khufu, Pharaoh of the fourth dynasty.

The papyri reveal the life of a man named Merer, who was responsible for a team of workers who moved massive stones from the east bank of the Nile River, to build the Great Pyramid of Giza.

This papyrus “details the daily life and way of life of the workers of the port (Wadi Al Jarf),” according to a statement from the Ministry of Antiquities.

When the Pyramid was finished, this is what it may have looked like.

“It details how a group of workers participated in the construction of the great pyramid” at Giza.

The pyramid is considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world, built more than 4,500 years ago.

“A part of the ancient papyri, the diary of Merer shows that Khufu’s reign exceeded 26 years.


How on Earth did the ancients build this massive structure?


Before the discovery of the papyrus, there were few available details about the duration of the reign of the famous pharaoh of the 4th dynasty.

It is believed that Merer led a team of about 40 sailors, according to the statement from the Ministry of Antiquities.

The papyrus records “the work of his team, which transported limestone blocks from the Torah deposits on the banks of the Nile to the Pyramid of Cheops in the Giza Plateau.”

The ancient text is described by Egyptian archaeologist Zahi Hawass as “the greatest discovery in Egypt in the 21st century.”

The ancient papyrus offers evidence on how the port of Wadi al-Jarf played an important role in the construction of the Pyramid.

Experts note how Copper was mined across the sea and then transported to Giza through this port. The coper was used to build stonecutting instruments which allowed the ancient Egyptians to shape the massive blocks of stone.

The Great Pyramid of Giza is one of the most fascinating ancient structures on the surface of the planet. Despite the fact that it was built more than 4,500 years ago, we have still not managed to understand how the ancients built it without the use of sophisticated technologies.

The Merer diary, as the papyrus has been called, at least offers some insight into how it was done. It details that stone blocks were ferried across the Nile in what is believed to have been a series of canals that delivered the massive blocks of stone as close as possible to the Pyramid construction site.

The massive stones were then rolled onto special tracks and transported to the Pyramid.

It still remains a mystery as to how the ancient Egyptians managed to stack these massive stones, building a structure that rose more than 150 meters into the sky.

Ancient Texts: A massive underground world exists beneath the Pyramids of Giza

Is there really an underground world beneath the Pyramids of Giza?

If we take a look at ancient texts written thousands of years ago, we find incredible details of a long-lost world hidden beneath our feet.

As if the Pyramids at the Giza plateau and the Sphinx weren’t fascinating enough on their own, there are numerous accounts of secret tunnels, passageways, and chambers located beneath the Giza plateau. Some of these chambers are said to date back more than 15,000 years.

It is a massive underground world, kept away from society, hidden from history books.

In fact, the entire region of Memphis (Giza) is said to be covered by underground chambers, and secret rooms.

Not far from Giza, at Fayum Oasis Herodotus once described the existence of an incredible Labyrinth which according to his writings was “an endless wonder to me.”

This ancient labyrinth was, according to Herodotus of impressive size, and contained up to 1500 rooms, and subterranean chambers which were back then already off limits.

This ancient structure left Herodotus awestruck, and he was compelled to write about it:

“…There I saw twelve palaces regularly disposed, which had communication with each other, interspersed with terraces and arranged around twelve halls. It is hard to believe they are the work of man, the walls are covered with carved figures, and each court is exquisitely built of white marble and surrounded by a colonnade. Near the corner where the labyrinth ends, there is a pyramid, two hundred and forty feet in height, with great carved figures of animals on it and an underground passage by which it can be entered. I was told very credibly that underground chambers and passages connected this pyramid with the pyramids at Memphis…”

Herodotus even wrote about a massive multi-level megalithic complex beneath the Pyramids at Giza, said to have been at least 15,000 old. Interestingly, quite a few authors supported Herodotus’ writing s about underground passages connecting major pyramids.

What secrets are hidden beneath the Giza plateau?

Iamblichus Chalcidensis, or Iamblichus of Apamea a  Syrian Neoplatonist philosopher, and the biographer of Pythagoras wrote about an entranceway through the body of the Sphinx into the Great Pyramid:

“…This entrance, obstructed in our day by sands and rubbish, may still be traced between the forelegs of the crouched colossus. It was formerly closed by a bronze gate whose secret spring could be operated only by the Magi. It was guarded by public respect, and a sort of religious fear maintained its inviolability better than armed protection would have done. In the belly of the Sphinx were cut out galleries leading to the subterranean part of the Great Pyramid.  These galleries were so art-fully crisscrossed along their course to the Pyramid that, in setting forth into the passage without a guide throughout this network, one ceasingly and inevitably returned to the starting point…”

The Giza plateau is well-known for a massive underground system that is composed of both manmade tunnels and chambers, as well as subterranean rivers and passages which have been mapped using ground penetrating radar since 1978.

Several historians have pondered about the size of these underground structures, and what they may represent.

Some researchers claim that there are chambers beneath Giza larger than our largest cathedrals and that the legendary “City of the Gods”, may, in fact, be a massive structure located beneath the surface.

Further evidence of secret underground passageways can be found in a manuscript currently housed in the British Museum, written by Altelemsani, which details an extensive square underground passage built between the Great Pyramid and the Nile river, with a ‘strange thing’ blocking the Nile entrance.

“In the days of Ahmed Ben Touloun, a party entered the Great Pyramid through the tunnel and found in a side-chamber a goblet of glass of rare color and texture. As they were leaving, they missed one of the party and, upon returning to seek him, he came out to them naked and laughing said, “Do not follow or seek for me”, and then rushed back into the pyramid. His friends perceived that he was enchanted.

Upon learning about strange happenings under the Pyramid, Ahmed Ben Touloun expressed a desire to see the goblet of glass. During the examination, it was filled with water and weighed, then emptied and re-weighed. The historian wrote that it was “found to be of the same weight when empty as when full of water”.”

Furthermore, other writers such as Masoudi (10th century) wrote about fascinating ‘mechanical statues with amazing capabilities’ which stood as guards, preventing anyone from entering subterranean chambers located beneath the Great Pyramid.

These ‘robots’ from ancient times were supposedly programmed to destroy all “except those who by their conduct were worthy of admission”.

“…written accounts of Wisdom and acquirements in the different arts and sciences were hidden deep, that they might remain as records for the benefit of those who could afterward comprehend them.”

“…I have seen things that one does not describe for fear of making people doubt one’s intelligence… but still I have seen them…”—Masoudi, 10th century.


Atlantis: A Dane Maddock Adventure

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