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Akhenaten: The Most Mysterious Pharaoh Of Ancient Egypt


Ancient texts describe a time in the history of ancient Egypt known as the Predynastic era, where ‘Gods’ ruled for hundreds of years over Ancient Egypt, Akhenaten could easily have been an ancient Egyptian Pharaoh that belonged to that period, only out of place and time. Some‪ #‎AncientAlien‬ theorists interpret his elongated skull as a sign of extraterrestrial heritage.

Ancient  Egypt has one of the most incredible histories on the surface of the planet. Not only are the amazing architectural achievements of the ancient Egyptians noteworthy, but their incredible knowledge in different sciences is also an impressive detail shared by only a few other ancient civilizations around the globe.

However, the Pyramids of the Giza Plateau and the great majestic Sphinx are not the on only mysteries surrounding the ancient Egyptian Civilization, their rulers belong to the list of the most enigmatic details of the ancient Egyptian Civilization, and one Ancient Egyptian Pharoah stands out from the rest: Akhenaten.

Akhenaten, who was known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt who ruled for 17 years. He was the father of Tutankhamun, one of the most famous Ancient Egyptian Pharaohs. Many consider Akhenaten as one of the worlds’ greatest and most influential religious innovators. Many consider him as the first monotheist in all of history, a precursor to Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Muhammad as prophets who worshiped one God.

However, before Akhenaten, many strange Pharaohs ruled over Ancient Egypt.

One of the most important ancient texts that can tell us more about this time in history is the Papyrus of Turin, which lists all the Pharaohs who ruled over Ancient Egypt.

Not only does this list include all of the ‘official’ historic Pharaohs of Ancient Egypt, but it also includes the deities or “Gods” who came from above and reigned over the lands of Egypt before the first mortal Pharaoh of Egypt with a lineage that spreads over 13,000 years. It is a great enigma why mainstream scholars consider this ancient text as pure myth and why most details of the ancient text have been overlooked and omitted from the history books.

They seem to have no ancestors or periods of development; they seem to have appeared overnight.” – English Egyptologist Toby Wilkinson (source)

The Palermo Stele is another ancient text which mentions the mystery rulers of pre-dynastic Egypt.

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Ancient Alien Pharaohs?

This ancient Stele even makes reference to Egyptian God Horus, suggesting that he was a physical ruler of the Ancient Egypt thousands of years ago. Another Egyptian God, Thoth is said to have reigned over the lands of Ancient Egypt from 8670 to 7100 BC. Interestingly, Egyptian High Priest Manetho, who had access to unlimited ancient texts from the Ancient Library of Alexandria, and who wrote for the Pharaoh the history of Ancient Egypt in 30 volumes makes reference to the divine beings that ruled during Pre-Pharaonic Egypt. (source)

According to Egyptian Mythology Akhenaten descended from the gods who arrived on Earth at the time of Zep Tepi and until today, people still believe that this Pharaoh did, in fact, come from the Stars. According to the “Pyramid Texts”, there was a period that emerged from the primordial chaos and the way gods ruled the earth. This time is called “Zep Tepi.”

Many researchers believe that the ancient Egyptian civilization originated in the year 36.900 BC, when ‘Gods,’ who came from the heavens ruled over the land of the Pharaohs. Akhenaten was believed to have bene one of them.


Akhenaten, considered by many as a heretic Pharaoh, was the ruler responsible for taking ancient Egypt towards an entirely different religious lifestyle, trying to reconstruct religion departing from traditional ancient Egyptian polytheism.

There is only one God, my father. I can approach him by day, by night.” – Akhenaten

Akhenaten, upon becoming Pharaoh ordered all the iconography of previous gods to be removed. He only allowed one emblem, which was a sun symbol, literally a sun disk with curious arms or rays pointing down.

The Aten, or commonly referred to as the ‘Sun Disk’  was illustrated in ancient texts, as a deity, and in The Story of Sinuhe from the 12th dynasty, a deceased king is described as rising as God to the heavens and uniting with the sun-disk, the divine body merging with its maker.

By analogy, the term “silver Aten” was sometimes used to refer to the moon. The solar Aten was extensively worshiped as a god in the reign of Amenhotep III when it was depicted as a falcon-headed man much like Ra

However, Akhenaten was far more mysterious, and his strange looking body has fueled theories suggesting he may not have been an ordinary pharaoh but in fact a mysterious leader who arrived fro the heaven.

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While Akhenaten is well-known because of the mysterious shape of his head, the list of characteristics is lengthy: an elongated skull, long neck, sunken eyes, thick thighs, long fingers, backward-turned knee joints, a prominent belly that suggests pregnancy and female-like breasts.

The first thing that is strange is his elongated skull, and in all of the statues and depictions of him, we see this elongated skull. In general, his body was sort of like a feminine and masculine mixture. This was, in fact, strange since all other Pharaohs were depicted as strong, imposing figures. Akhenaten however, was not depicted like that, but as a weak, strange looking being with an extremely elongated head.

Why would Akhenaten order the changes he did in the royal iconography to show him as this “weak” Pharaoh? Mysteriously, Akhenaten’s wife Nefertiti was also depicted having an elongated skull. Did they have some genetic anomaly that caused their heads– and body is, in general, to be misshaped and disproportional? Alternatively, is there something more to this strange Pharaoh and his origins? Is it possible that he was a hybrid human being? With genes and DNA from Extraterrestrials?

A Giant Energy Machine? 5 Incredible characteristics of the Bosnian Pyramid


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From the presence of a mysterious underground energy beam with a radius of s 4.5 meters and a frequency of 28 kHz with a strength of 3,9 V, to ultrasound Beams at the Pyramids of the Sun, here we have 5 incredible characteristics of the Bosnian Pyramid which suggests this could, in fact, be an extremely advanced ancient structure. 

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The idea that the Bosnian Pyramid is, in fact, one of the oldest Pyramids on the surface of the planet, and that it belongs to a set of ancient structures in the area is heavily disputed by numerous scientists who refuse to accept the notion that there are highly advanced structures located in Europe.

However, the idea that the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is a giant energy machine, and that it can produce, harness and share power wirelessly is considered by many as a ludicrous statement.

Recent studies performed at the Bosnian Pyramids have uncovered incredible features that are slowly changing how society perceives history and archeology. The Pyramid of the Sun, with its 220 meters height, exceeds the Great Pyramid of Egypt, which measures 147 meters (height).However, what we find mind-blowing is the fact that the Pyramid’s orientation to the North is accurate with an error of 0 degrees, 0 minutes and 12 seconds.

The mysterious geometric shapes of Visoko were first noticed by Dr. Osmanagić in 2015 when he traveled to the town of Visoko, and the enigmatic hills caught his attention.

„In summer of 2013, we analyzed a piece of organic material discovered between two concrete layers. The age was released in September 2013, and it shows 29.200 years +/- 400 years. This finding confirms that the Bosnian pyramids are also the oldest known pyramids on the planet.“ – Dr. Osmanagić

Weird Energy Beam. Researchers have detected and measured an energy beam (electromagnetic in nature) coming through the top of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, and the details are just incredible. The radius of the beam is 4.5 meters with a frequency of 28 kHz with a strength of 3,9 V. According to researchers, the beam is continuous, and its strength grows as it moves up and away from the pyramid. This phenomenon contradicts the known laws of nature, physics and technology and might as well be the first ever “tangible” proof of non-herzian technology found on Earth.

Ultrasound Beams at the Pyramids of the Sun. An “ultrasound” beam found at the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun comes in regular blocks of 9,3333 Hz with peaks up to 28.3000kHz so what you have here are properties of energy making constructions, natural formations or natural pyramids do not display these characteristics. By the end of 2012, the source of the beam was located 1.5 miles under the Pyramid and according to researchers it has an estimated power of over 10kW.

Ultrasound oscillations. Researchers have uncovered the presence of ultrasound oscillations at 24 kHz and one octave up at 48 kHz whose amplitudes changed in a rhythmic manner thanks to Hydrophone recordings conducted in water pools within the Ravne tunnels.  A 38 kHz frequency also appeared erratically.  Interestingly, this is 14 kHz higher than the 24 kHz frequency, a difference frequency that is half of the 28 kHz frequency reported coming from the Pyramid of the Sun.

Negative Ions in abundance. Energy screenings show that the ionization level has over 43,000 negative ions which are about 200 times higher than the average concentration which makes these underground chambers display healing properties.

Levels of “negative radiation.”. What is even more impressive si the fact that tests have confirmed that the levels of “negative radiation”, through the Hartman, Curry, and Schneider grids are equal to zero in the tunnels discovered. There has been no technical radiation nor cosmic radioactivity found in the tunnels. Ceramic sculptures have been discovered over the underground water streams which are positioned in such a manner that the negative energy is converted into positive.

10 things you should know about Planet X


Planet X is without a doubt, one of the most enigmatic and mysterious planets said to exist within the outer reaches of our solar system.

The planet referred to by many as simply X, Nibiru (according to ancient Sumerian Texts) and the Ninth planet by astronomers, is said to be located in the outer reaches of our solar system, far beyond the orbit of Pluto. The elusive planet is said to approach the inner parts of our solar system approximately every 25,000 years or so, causing destruction along its way.

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However, until recently, the planet was believed to be just another myth, another set of stories without any scientific background to back up its existence. However, everything changed in January of 2016, when researchers from Caltech said they had firm indications which suggest the planet is not a myth and does, in fact, exist beyond the orbit of Pluto.  It is believed for some time now, that there are Kuiper belt objects which have strange characteristics attributed to them, their orbit is different and seems to give away a massive, never-before-seen planet in our solar system. The authors, of the study mentioned above, Michael Brown and Konstantin Batygin, suggest that the smaller bodies located on the edges of the solar system appear to be influenced by the gravity of a hidden planet – a “massive perturber.”

Planet X was the term first introduced by Percival Lowell, a US millionaire and space enthusiast, who died without finding the alleged planet. However, in 1930, Clyde William Tombaugh spotted a celestial object that he believed explained the perturbations in the orbit of Neptune, this was when he discovered Pluto.

In this article we bring you ten things you should know about the enigmatic, elusive and mysterious planet X:

The idea that there is a massive, previously unseen planet somewhere in the outer reaches of our solar system dates back several decades. In fact, according to the Washington Post“A heavenly body possibly as large as the giant planet Jupiter and possibly so close to Earth that it would be part of this solar system has been found in the direction of the constellation Orion by an orbiting telescope aboard the U.S. infrared astronomical satellite… ‘All I can tell you is that we do not know what it is,’ said Gerry Neugebauer, chief IRAS scientist.” An article published in Newsweek on July 13, 1987, NASA disclosed that there may be a 10th planet orbiting our Sun.  According to NASA research scientist John Anderson, Planet X might be out there, but nowhere near our planets. The article from Newsweek states“if he is right, two of the most intriguing puzzles of space science might be solved: what caused mysterious irregularities in the orbits of Uranus and Neptune during the 19th Century? Moreover, what killed off the dinosaurs 26 million years ago.”

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The Planet was thought to have been discovered several times int the past. In 2008, Japanese researchers announced that according to their calculations, there should be an “undiscovered” planet at a distance of about 100 AU (astronomical units) that has a size of up to two-thirds of the planet Earth. These and many other calculations support the hypothesis of the existence of Nibiru, or Planet X.

The enigmatic planet has been associated with catastrophic events on Earth. In fact, some researchers believe that a mass extinction that occurred 27 million years ago was caused by the approach of the elusive planet. Comets and minor celestial bodies plumbed into earth changing the planet forever. According to researchers, there are fossils on Earth which suggest such a scenario did, in fact, occur in the distant past when a large object impacted our planet and caused a massive extinction. However, there are those who believe that this scenario is a recurring one and that it will happen in the future.

According to a retired astrophysicist from the University of Louisiana, Daniel Whitmire, Nibiru, aka Planet X, is real and it is a recurring celestial phenomenon that spells doom for planet Earth. A recently published research presented to the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society suggests that a world similar to Nibiru could cause and has caused mass extinction on Earth several times in the distant past of our planet. Pprofessor Whitmire first speculated about the planet and its Mass-extinction connection with Earth in 1985 in the journal Nature.

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While the planet has STILL NOT been found, there are increasing indications that a planet, ten times more massive than Earth exists somewhere out there, in the outermost areas of our solar system. The extreme eccentricity of distant Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO) could indicate that they have crossed paths with a massive planet in the distant past, the supposed missing planet beyond Pluto: Planet NINE, aka Planet X, concluded a team of researchers from the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona.

A giant planet is causing havoc among Gas Giants. Based on mathematical models, the group of French researchers was able to calculate what influence such planet – traveling along the orbit postulated by Americans astronomers – would have in the orbit of other planets as it passed by them.

The enigmatic Planet (X) orbits our sun at such a distance that it needs between 10,000 – 20,000 years to complete a single orbit around it.

Planet X or Nibiru? Zecharia Sitchin described Nibiru according to Sumerian cosmology as the 12th planet. Nibiru is home to an alien race called the Anunnaki an extreme advanced extraterrestrial civilization. Ancient Astronaut theorists believe that te orbit of Nibiru around the sun is extremely elliptical, and according to text, it is located far beyond the orbit of Pluto. Nibiru takes around 3600 years to complete one orbit around the Sun. Nibiru is believed to be the home planet of the Anunnaki.  The approach of Nibiru towards the planets of our solar system might pose a huge threat given its gravitational characteristics. According to the ancient cuneiform texts, which are believed to be some of the oldest writings known to date, go back at least 6,000 years. These writings explain the history of a race of beings called the Anunnaki. The Anunnaki came to Earth from a planet in our solar system which is called Nibiru. Sadly, many people have never heard of it, because according to mainstream science the planet called Nibiru does not exist. However, according to Sitchin, the presence of Nibiru is critical for the past and future of humanity.

If Planet X is Nibiru… wouldn’t their be evidence of its existence in ancient texts? Ancient Sumerians and other ancient cultures are said to have documented the existence of the mysterious planet. However, our inability to find it in modern times has categorized the celestial body as being a myth, and not a fact as many believe.

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Planet X… the Great Destroyer? The enigmatic, elusive planet is in fact called ” The Destroyer” in the Kolbrin, a parallel Bible located in the monastery of Glastonbury in Scotland; Men forget the days of the Destroyer. Only the wise know where it went and that it shall return at the appointed time. … It is the Destroyer … Its color was bright and fierce and ever-changing, with an unstable appearance … a fierce body of flames.

An outcast planet. If Planet X (Planet 9) exists, it could help explain the elliptical orbits of dwarf planets like Sedna.

Astronomers suggest that if this planet does in fact exist, it is very likely that it was ejected from the solar system when our planetary neighborhood was extremely young.

Planets in our Solar System are giving away the location of the mystery planet. For some time now, it is known among researchers that there are certain Kuiper Belt objects which are well known because of their different dynamics. While the majority of these objects is controlled significantly by the gravitational attraction of Gas Giants in our solar system –specifically Neptune–, there are other members of the Kuiper belt that have highly unusual orbits that seem to give away the presence of another, much larger object located in the outermost parts of the solar system.

The Ancient Anunnaki, Nibiru, and why Gold was so important


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The existence of the ancient Anunnaki –An Extraterrestrial civilization that came to Earth in the distant past–  has long been disputed by researchers, yet their existence and arrival to planet Earth is well documented in many ancient texts that mainstream history has completely ignored.

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The Ancient Anunnaki… Creators of Mankind?

According to Zecharia Sitchin, the Anunnaki ‘Gods’ created humans as a slave species called “the Adamu,” the first modern humans to live on Earth. The first humans were the product of intelligent design by the Anunnaki 450,000 years ago when the Ancient Anunnaki genetically mixed their DNA with that of prehistoric man and that way obtained a labor force that allowed them to exploit earth’s natural resources.

Historically speaking, there are many similarities among ancient Sumerian texts and modern religious books such as the Bible. Could they have a similar origin? Some African cultures believe that extraterrestrial beings have been visiting the Earth for tens of thousands of years, for example, the Zulu legends speak of a time when “visitors from the stars” came to excavate gold and other natural resources. These mines were worked by slaves created by the “First People.“

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The story behind the Anunnaki – Those whom Anu sent from Heaven to Earth’ – is far more mysterious than anyone is willing to accept. In recent years, and mostly because of the Ancient Astronaut Theory – which proposes that Earth has been visited by advanced Alien civilizations from thousands of years – the truth behind the Anunnaki has gained much importance among millions of readers and viewers around the globe.

Evidence of the Anunnaki present in ancient clay tablets?

If the Anunnaki did exist, would we find evidence of their reign here on Earth? Well, according to ot many researchers, the evidence is abundant.

During excavations of the Biblical city of Nineveh, a team led by Austen Henry Layard discovered the ruins of the ancient Assyrian library of Ashurbanipal. Interestingly, one of the most important discoveries made during the excavation were a series of cuneiform tablets called the Enűma Eliš, or better known as “The Seven Tablets of Creation.” According to numerous researchers, the Seven Tablets of Creation tell the story about a group of gods called the Anunnaki who came from the heaven to create the human race.

The Sumerian King List is perhaps one of the most important ancient texts that perfectly describes a time in history where literally ‘Gods’ ruled for thousands of years. (Find out more about the Ancient Sumerian King List here.)

After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years.”

One of the most interesting details about the Sumerian King List is the fact that the earliest list, describes eight kings who ruled over Earth for a total of 241,200 years, since the original kingship had ‘descended from heaven’ all the way to the time of the ‘Great Flood’, which swept over the land and once more “the kingship was lowered from heaven” after the Flood.

The Great Flood according to ancient Sumerian accounts

Did you know that the earliest accounts of the Great Flood are found in ancient Sumerian texts? According to the ancient Sumerians, ‘Eridu’ –modern day Abu Shahrein, Iraq– was believed to have been the first city ever created, and was the home city of the great God Enki. The city is thought to have been founded circa 5400 BC.

The Eridu Genesis, which is thought to have been composed circa 2,300 BCE, is the earliest known account fo the Great Flood, predating the more popular Great Flood described in the biblical book of the Genesis. The Eridu Genesis is the tale where Utnapishtim was instructed by the gods to build a great vessel and gathers inside ‘the seed of life.’

In the book written by Thorkild Jacobsen, a renowned historian specializing in Assyriology and Sumerian literature, the creation of man is attributed to four Gods –the Anunnaki’:

“The ‘Eridu Genesis’…described the creation of man by the four great gods [the Anunnaki]: An [‘Sky’, the source of rain and most powerful of the gods], Enlil [‘Lord Wind’, the power in ‘Growing Weather’, creator of the hoe], Ninhursaga [‘Lady of the Stony Ground’, mother of wildlife], and Enki [rival of Ninhursaga]. After Nintur [Ninhursaga] had decided to turn man from his primitive nomadic camping grounds toward city life, the period began when animals flourished on earth and kingship came down from heaven. The earliest cities were built, were named, had the measuring cups, emblems of a redistributional economic system, allotted to them, and were divided between the gods. Irrigation agriculture was developed, and man thrived and multiplied. However, the noise made by man in his teeming settlements began to vex Enlil sorely, and, driven beyond endurance; he persuaded the other gods to wipe out man in a great flood. Enki, thinking quickly, found a way to warn his favorite, one Ziusudra. He told him to build a boat in which to survive the flood with his family and representatives of the animals.” –Thorkild Jacobsen, The Treasures of Darkness

Ancient Anunnaki mines? Is there evidence?

150 km west of Port Maputo in South Africa, we find what many people today refer as to one of the first, major Ancient Anunnaki Metropolises. According to initial tests, an area of over 1,500 square kilometers is evidence of the existence of giant, prehistoric cities, that belonged to an ‘unknown’ ancient civilization that inhabited the area in the distant past, at a time when mainstream scholars tell us, advanced civilizations did not inhabit Earth.

According to Michael Tellinger, one of the first researchers to investigate the ruins in South Africa, the finding is so incredible that it will need a complete paradigm shift in how we view our human history.

Tellinger proposes that the amazing ancient city is part of an even larger community with about 10,000 square kilometers and is believed to have been constructed 160,000 to 200,000 years before Christ.

Nibiru and Gold: Saving the Home Planet of the Ancient Anunnaki

However, what about Nibiru? Moreover, why did the ancient Anunnaki come specifically to Earth in the distant past?

In 1976, the late Zecharia Sitchin raised a controversy with the publication of his book “The Twelfth Planet”. In this and subsequent books, Sitchin presented his translations of ancient Sumerian texts which tell an incredible story regarding the origins of humanity on Earth, stories that are completely different to those that most of us learned in school.

Nibiru is the mythical planet located in the outer reaches of our solar system. It is the giant home planet of the Anunnaki, and it was doomed, and the only thing that could save the planet was gold.

Sitchin hypothesized that “the Anunnaki” came from Nibiru –which has a 3,600-year elliptical orbit– to mine Gold on Earth. The planets minerals and resources were depleting, specifically Gold. The Anunnaki’s home planet needed gold in the atmosphere which was disappearing so they came to our planet to mine gold and take it back to their home planet.

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Did you know that Gold reflects infrared light? Infrared is the light you do not see it, but in fact, interact with it in the form of heat,  the radiation interacts with our molecules and that makes them vibrate faster, and you’ll feel that as heat, gold also makes an excellent heat shield, partly because it is quite malleable.

Better yet, you can make gold very thin; it is easy to work with, and it has excellent properties for reflecting and heat protection making it indeed the only metal that is proven to last the test of time, we can say that Gold is indestructible. Ancient civilizations used it thousands of years ago in figures and some of them in buildings, anything that was made out of gold– thousands of years ago still exists today.

Not only in ancient Sumeria, but ancient civilization across the globe had a very special place for gold in their society.

Are the stories about the ancient Anunnaki just ancient mythology? Are they a real extraterrestrial race that has visited Earth thousands of years ago? What do you think? Is there enough evidence to support the Ancient Alien theory about this extraterrestrial race? You decide!

MIT scientists: There is an invisible force field protecting Earth


MIT scientists discovered an invisible force field protecting Earth. Scientists believe that the enigmatic force field operates on low-frequency electromagnetism, but its source is still a mystery.

It turns out that there is an invisible force field protecting our planet. The mysterious ‘invisible’ force field seems like something taken out of a science fiction movie where our planet is protected from the dangers of outer space, and in fact, it turns out that our planet is being protected by a force field of mysterious origin.

It prevents harmful cosmic radiation from entering our planet’s atmosphere and was first noticed by two NASA spacecraft orbiting the Van Allen radiation belt at an altitude of 11,000 kilometers above Earth.

The invisible force field blocks highly radioactive electrons located in Earth’s upper atmospheric region. According to NASA, “ultrarelativistic” electrons were highly aggressive and circulated in space at speeds very close to the speed of light. They are also very dangerous since they tend to fry everything that comes across them from spacecraft to satellites in orbit.

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Image Credit: Shutterstock

To find out more, NASA launched two probes, the Van Allen Probes, in order to study the electrons to improve the safety level of astronauts and equipment sent to space.

According to statements from NASA, these particles are attracted towards Earth by the planet’s magnetic field. However, they cannot approach the planet closer than 7,200 miles thanks to the invisible force field, NEVER detected before.

The force field acts as a barrier protecting our planet from harmful cosmic radiation and does a pretty good job by shielding our planet from solar blows directed towards Earth.

Scientists believe that the enigmatic force field operates on low-frequency electromagnetism, but its source is still a mystery.

While trying to understand the mystery force field, researchers from MIT have come up with several theories related to its origin. One of the first suggestions was that it had to do something with your planets Magnetic field, believing that this field maintained the barrier in its place, however, after careful studies, they concluded that the barrier was still present even though the magnetic field was up 30% less intense.

For example, they noticed that above South America, Earth’s magnetic field drops in intensity even though the barrier does not fail, and continues to protect life on our planet from harmful cosmic radiation.

Researchers dug deeper and believed that the most likely causes for the barrier were the existence of long-range radio waves originating from our planet. However, once again, they were proven wrong since the waves usually interact with neutral electrons and are not much of aid against ultrarelativistic particles. They continued their search and discovered that the barrier was most likely created by a phenomenon referred to as ‘plasmaspheric hiss’ which occurs in the upper parts of our planet’s atmosphere.

The phenomenon is known as ‘plasmaspheric hiss’ helps deflect from orbit dangerous fast-moving particles, deviating them on a parallel plan to one of our planet’s magnetic field lines, which forces them to fall into the atmosphere, colliding with neutrally charged particles, and eventually disappear.

According to writings by news.mit.edu: „What’s keeping this high-energy radiation at bay seems to be neither the Earth’s magnetic field nor long-range radio waves, but rather a phenomenon termed “plasmaspheric hiss” — very low-frequency electromagnetic waves in the Earth’s upper atmosphere that, when played through a speaker, resemble static, or white noise.“

“It is a very unusual, extraordinary, and pronounced phenomenon,” says John Foster, associate director of MIT’s Haystack Observatory. “What this tells us is if you parked a satellite or an orbiting space station with humans just inside this impenetrable barrier, you would expect them to have much longer lifetimes. That is a good thing to know.”

Study finds that Ancient Aztecs and Incas are genetically related to people from Siberia


After nearly a century of speculation and theories, an international team of geneticists has obtained conclusive evidence proving that the Incas and Iroquois are closely related to people of Altai, a Siberian region that borders China and Mongolia.

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The study proves how ancient Aztec’s, Incas, possibly Pre-Inca cultures, Iroquois and other natives of the Americas are closely related to people near the villages of Altai in Russia.

According to a study performed by a group of international geneticists, ancient civilizations such as the Aztecs, the Incas, Iroquois and other American cultures are closely related to villages of Altai, a Russian region located between Siberia, China, and Mongolia. However, the idea that these people are related isn’t a new theory and has already been considered as a possibility by numerous researchers dating back  a century at least.

The idea that people from Siberia and surrounding area migrated through northeastern Russia and Alaska, to America, is something that has been suspected for a century by numerous researchers. However, until today, no one had managed to prove it. Now, thanks to Russian geneticist Oleg Balanovski, this migratory theory has been scientifically corroborated.

Dr. Balanovsky’s research also proved that some Native Americans have kinship with the indigenous populations of Australia.

The current study confirms the theory that the Altai peoples are closely related to Native Americans,” said geneticist Valery Ilyinsky at the RAS Institute of General Genetics. ”We now have clear proof, and it is useless to contest it.”

Through the comparative study of Native Americans and their Siberian ancestors, contrasted with the rest of the world, researchers were able to establish that the ancestors of Aboriginal peoples, like the Aztec and  Inca, arrived at the ‘New World’ possibly over 30 thousand years ago, from Siberia.

However, the results of the study led to another great discovery:

Besides Siberian ancestors, some Native Americans showed a puzzling relation to the indigenous peoples of Australia and Melanesia in the Pacific Ocean,” remarked Dr. Balanovsky. “This is astounding because they are located in an almost opposite part on the planet.”

It is somewhat surprising, as these regions are almost diametrically opposed, “says Balanovski.

A HUGE landbridge connecting continents

According to rbth.com,  Scientists already know how humans traveled to the Americas from Altai. “Instead of the Bering Strait there was a land bridge [30,000 years ago], because during the Ice Age much water was locked in glaciers and the level of the world’s oceans was lower,” Dr. Balanovsky explained.

He added that it’s still not clear whether migration from Australia and Melanesia to the Americas was direct across the ocean, or by going up along the coast and via the Aleutian Islands. Archaeologists continue to study this issue.

Featured image credit: Alamy/Legion Media

New Study Finds ‘Unicorns’ Existed On Earth Around 26,000 Years Ago


According to a new study, ‘Unicorns’ lived in parts of Kazakhstan until 26,000 years ago, meaning that human might have even coexisted with the mysterious animals in the distant past.

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While the ancient unicorns might not have been as pretty as we depict them today, it seems that the animals ancient mankind encountered in parts of Siberia could have ignited the mythical tales about Unicorns.

The bizarre animals lived alongside humans some 26,000 years ago, proving that there might be truth behind the legendary myth(sort of). The so-called Siberian Unicorn was not as pretty as humans might have imagined the animal in mythological tales, but it proves the creature roamed the Earth fairly ‘recently’.

Referred to by researchers as Elasmotheriusm sibiricum, the ‘Siberian Unicorn’ is believed to have died out in Siberia some 350,000 years ago, but the discovery of a new fossil proves that this mysterious animal was present on Earth much longer than previously thought, living in parts of Kazakhstan until 26,000 years ago. The Siberian ‘Unicorn’ was in fact a giant-sized ancient Rhino, from which ancient man might have developed tales of Unicorns we read about today.

The discovery points that the animal –which would have grown to the size of mammoths weighing some five tons– sought refuge in western Siberia, where they most likely coexisted with human species.

Researchers maintain that humans spread across parts of Asia some 50,000 years ago and moved to parts of what is today Siberia some 35,000 years ago.

According to Dr. Andrei Shpanski, a palaeontologist at the Tomsk State University: ‘Most likely, the south of Western Siberia was a refúgium, where this rhino persevered the longest in comparison with the rest of its range.’

‘There is another possibility that it could migrate and dwell for a while in the more southern areas.’

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A painting of Elasmotherium sibiricum by Heinrich Harder. Photo Credit: Wikimedia Commons

Scientists discovered fossilized remains of the giant animals skull near the village of Kozhamazhar in the Pavlodar Priirtysh region of north east Kazakhstan. Interestingly, the remains of the ‘Siberian Unicorn’ were discovered alongside fossils of prehistoric bison and mammoths.

According to researchers, based on the discovered fossils, the animal would have reached around 4.6 meters in length, while growing to a height of around 2 meters. Scholars believe the Siberian Unicorns was, in fact, a variant of an ancient rhino, which grew much larger than  the woolly rhinos that were believed to live around the same time. Although researchers did not recover the actual ‘horn’ of the ‘Siberian Unicorn’, studies of the skull show that a bony lump is thought to have supported a keratin horn. Scientists suggest that the animal had long legs which allowed the animal to gallop much like a modern-day horse, rather than the lumbering trot seen in modern rhinos around the world.

adelasmotheriumsi - New Study Finds ‘Unicorns’ Existed On Earth Around 26,000 Years Ago

Dr. Shpanski and his colleagues used radio carbon dating to determine the animal was around 26,038 years old – making it remarkably young.

Dr. Shpanski said: ‘Most likely, it was a very large male of very large individual age.

‘The dimensions of this rhino are the biggest of those described in the literature, and the proportions are typical.’

According to Dr. Shpanski, the animals most likely died out due to climate changes in Siberia. This isn’t the first time that researchers have discovered a last ‘refuge’ of a giant ice age species hat died out a long time ago. The study was published in the American Journal of Applied Science.

Rewriting history: Researchers find evidence that Vikings arrived in America 500 years before Columbus


Researchers have found conclusive evidence that ancient Vikings arrived in America 500 years before Columbus, effectively rewriting our history books.

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It seems that researchers have discovered yet another crucial piece of evidence which points towards the fact that Ancient Vikings traveled to the ‘New World’ 500 years before Christopher Columbus, proving that history, as we have been taught in school, is completely wrong.

Experts have come across a Viking settlement located on Point Rosee on the Canadian island of Newfoundland. According to preliminary results, iron Ore processing t the site indicates it dates back to somewhere between 800 AD and 1300 AD proving that the Vikings were not only fierce warriors but also extremely skilled navigators who traveled across the planet.

The discovery has caused archaeologists to accept a different history suggesting that this finding opens up an entirely new chapter in human history.

The archaeological site in Newfoundland is the SECOND known Viking settlement that has been found by researchers in North America and help confirm the theory suggesting that the Vikings were the first Europeans to reach the New World.

The new archaeological site is located over 600 kilometers south-west of a Viking settlement found L’Anse aux Meadows during the 1960s.

Archaeologists now believe that the new discovery undoubtedly opens a new chapter in our history, where we have come to realize that the ancient Vikings traveled further into the New World than anyone previously believed possible, even though numerous findings pointed in that direction.

According to Dr. Sarah Parcak, a researcher at the University of Alabama, Birmingham:

‘This new site could unravel more secrets about the Vikings whether they were the first Europeans to ‘occupy’ briefly in North America and reveal that the Vikings dared to explore much further into the New World than we ever thought.

‘Typically in archaeology, you only ever get to write a footnote in the history books, but what we seem to have at Point Rosee may be the beginning of an entirely new chapter.’

It was known for some time now that the ancient Vikings were extremely skillful seafarers, using the sun and stars in order to guide themselves in their long journey as they explored the coastlines of Greenland and North America.

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At the site, archaeologists discovered evidence of stones blackened by iron (above image) ore processing, a technique that the indigenous North American population was not thought to do. This suggests the buildings that stood at the site were inhabited by Vikings, who are well known for making extensive use of iron.

According to ‘The Saga of the Greenlanders’, the ancient Vikings discovered America by accident in autumn of 986AD.

The accounts tell how Bjarni Herjolfsson came across North America after he and his crew were blown off course during an attempt to sail from Norway to Greenland. Inspired by these stories, another brave Viking by the name of Leif Ericsson mounted his own expedition and ‘rediscovered’ America in 1002.

Ericsson discovered fertile lands where grapes and berries grew in abundance, so he decided to call the ‘new’ land ‘Vinland’.

During his journey, Ericsson also came across two distant lands on the North American coast, one which had flat stones which he decided to name Helluland, and another wand which was ‘flat-wooded’ which he named Markland.

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With the help of infrared images of the newly discovered site, researchers were able to identify the outlines of what they believe were longhouses resembling those used by the ancient Vikings

Now, the new discovery made in Newfoundland helps confirm these ‘mythical’ stories showing that the ancient Viking legends were, in fact, true.

The new Viking site was found with the help of high-resolution near-infrared images taken by satellites.

Speaking to National Geographic Dr. Bolender explained that the Viking sagas detailing journeys to what has been interpreted as North America are true rather than merely legends.

‘We’re looking here because of the sagas. Nobody would have ever found L’Anse aux Meadows if it weren’t for the sagas. But, the flipside is that we have no idea how reliable they are,’ said Dr. Bolender.

Professor Judith Jesch, director of Nottingham University’s Centre for the Study of the Viking Age described the new discovery as ‘exciting’.

Speaking about the discovery, Professor Jesch said: ‘Finding Vikings in the United States is the Holy Grail for many people, not least because there are many Americans of Scandinavian descent who would like to think that they were following in the footsteps of their ancestors.

The discovery is outlined in a 90 minute BBC documentary called Vikings Uncovered.

Larger than Baalbek: Huge Megaliths found in Russia defy explanation


YouTube Video Here: https://www.youtube.com/embed/iFOwlZfNTO4?feature=oembed&enablejsapi=1

Researchers state that from the scale depicted by the human figures, these megaliths are much larger (as much as 2 to 3 times larger) than the largest known megaliths in the world. Preliminary studies suggest that there are blocks of stone at Gornaya Shoria which weigh around three to four thousand tons.

The Megaliths of Baalbek are considered by mainstream scholars as some of the most impressive on planet Earth. However, there are numerous other sites that just as Baalbek, are beyond fascinating and completely defy our understanding of ancient civilizations and their capabilities in the distant past.

Update: In 2014, enormous megaliths were found near the two-thousand-year-old temple to Jupiter in Baalbek, Lebanon. One of these megaliths weighs 1650 tons and is 64 feet long. It is now considered the largest megalithic block carved by human hands in the world. On the other hand, the megaliths at Gornaya Shoria could possibly have been created by natural geological processes, according to some Russian scientists.

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Baalbek is impressive, it is the ultimate evidence of sophisticated ancient cultures that mastered engineering and architecture, yet it remains a profound mystery in the eyes or mainstream scholars. Mainstream archaeology has different points of view when it comes to the exact age of the site. According to conventional archaeologists, it was a Phoenician sanctuary dedicated to the god Baal, it was a Greek City called Heliopolis (City of the Sun) and since the time of Emperor Augustus, it was a Roman colony. The truth is, the exact age remains a mystery, but some researchers consider this ancient megalithic site as being at least 12.000 years old but could possibly be over 20,000 years old.

The great platform upon which the temple of Baalbek was built is majestic, but today only a few columns remain standing. It is a construction that modern archaeologists and engineers cannot explain given the history and age that have been “officially” accepted. Some believe that history has got it all wrong when it comes to Baalbek.

huge-megalithic-foundations-of-the-Temple-of-Jupiter-baalbek - Larger than Baalbek: Huge Megaliths found in Russia defy explanation

Gornaya Shoria

However, the megaliths located in Russia are even more impressive than Baalbek and have caused confusion among researchers ever since their discovery.

We are talking about the megalithic site of Gornaya Shoria, located deep in the Siberian Mountains, where  during one of the expeditions to the site, compasses of the geologists behaved very strangely and for some unknown reason their arrows were deviating from the megaliths. (source)

This impressive megalithic site is one of the largest sites ever discovered in Russia. Located on Mount Shoria in southern Siberia, the site contains some of the largest blocks of stone with flat surfaces, right angles, and sharp corners resembling cyclopean masonry ever discovered. The giant megaliths were found and photographed for the first time by Georgy Sidorov who explored the area for the first time in 2013. Ever since its discovery, this megalithic site has caused great debate among researchers and archaeologists who cannot agree whether or not the mysterious stones with flat surfaces, right angles, and sharp corners are man-made structures or not.

Preliminary studies suggest that there are blocks of tone which weigh around three to four thousand tons. What makes this site, even more, interesting is the fact that this extremely heavy blocks of stone have been stacked up to forty meters in height.

Without a doubt, the origin, purpose, and construction methods used into construction process of this ancient site remain a mystery, but their beauty, precision, and importance will remain a subject of debate in the years to come.

Very interesting comments regarding the megalithic site were made by archaeologist John Jensen:

The super megaliths were found and photographed for the first time by Georgy Sidorov on a recent expedition to the Southern Siberian mountains.

There are no measurements given, but from the scale depicted by the human figures, these megaliths are much larger (as much as 2 to 3 times larger) than the largest known megaliths in the world. (Example: The Pregnant Woman Stone of Baalbek, Lebanon weighs in at approximately 1,260 tons). Some of these megaliths could easily weigh upwards of 3,000 to 4,000 tons.

There is little commentary on Valery’s site, so the images are displayed here without many comments, other than my own limited observations.”

So what are the enigmatic stones found at Gornaya Shoria? Are these structures the result of ancient man’s ingenious construction methods? Or are they the result of mother nature’s incredible constructions.

Cyclopean masonry or not, the enigmatic megalithic blocks of stone of Gornaya Shoria have challenged mainstream archaeologists and researchers once again, forcing them into a debate that seeks to uncover the truth behind numerous similar ancient sites found around the globe.

Here are some images of the megalithic site of Gornaya Shoria:

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YouTube Video Here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0BIAFuagABc

The Translation of the Sumerian King List: When Gods ruled the Earth


After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years.”

The Sumerian King list describes a time on Earth when Gods ruled for thousands of years over mankind.

The Sumerian King list is without a doubt one of the most puzzling manuscripts ever discovered. Written in Ancient Sumerian, it lists numerous generations of Kings that ruled over Ancient Sumer, detailing their supposed length and location of kingships.

Researchers have not been able to explain why the unique list blends mythical pre-dynastic rulers with historical rulers who are known to have existed.

One of the most interesting details about the Sumerian King List is the fact that the earliest list, describes eight kings who ruled over Earth for a total of 241,200 years, since the original kingship had ‘descended from heaven’ all the way to the time of the ‘Great Flood’, which swept over the land and once more “the kingship was lowered from heaven” after the Flood.

The fragment of the list was discovered in the 1900’s by German-American researcher Hermann Hilprecht at Nippur, and the list was published in 1906. After Hilprecht’s discovery, around 18 other lists have been discovered dating from the second half of the Isin dynasty.

According to scholars, the Sumerian King list is a mixture of prehistorical and mythological accounts which speaks of Gods that ruled over the land enjoying implausibly lengthy reigns. Scholars today have only partially accepted the Sumerian King list suggesting that the implausible lengthy reigns described within the Sumerian King list are nothing more than mythology.

Many Assyriologists believe that the predynastic rulers described within the Sumerian King List are in fact a fictional addition to the list, incorporated later on. However, many researchers disagree with this theory.

According to scholars, the antediluvian reigns described in the Sumerian King list were measured in Sumerian numerical units known as sars (units of 3,600), need (units of 600), and sosses (units of 60).

The enigmatic LONG reigns of the Sumerian Kings

Ancient-Sumer - The Translation of the Sumerian King List: When Gods ruled the Earth
The Sumerian King List continues to puzzle historians and researchers after more than a century of research. The Sumerian King List is considered one of the greatest historical enigmas.

The incredibly long reigns described within the Sumerian King List has resulted in numerous theories that have been proposed throughout the years. While most researchers agree that the astronomically large periods of reign are mythical in nature and are unworthy of consideration and cannot be possibly realistic, there are others who point towards numerous details that point towards truth in the numbers. Researchers who believe that the numbers are based on reality and stress that we cannot simply discredit the numbers set forth in the Sumerian King list and that the early kings who ruled ancient Mesopotamia were in fact ‘Gods’ who could live much longer than ordinary mortals.

Scholars argue that it is possible that the extremely long periods of reign were a reflection of the importance of the king. The more years the king ‘ruled’ the more important He was to history in the eyes of mortal humans. However, this theory does not explain why the period of reign was switched to realistic numbers afterward.

This is why many argue that the Sumerian King List is in fact as it is written and that both Gods and mortals ruled over ancient Mesopotamia in the distant past.

The Translation (Source)

1-39After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug. In Eridug, Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira. In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43200 years. En-men-gal-ana ruled for 28800 years. Dumuzid, the shepherd, ruled for 36000 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 108000 years. Then Bad-tibira fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Larag. In Larag, En-sipad-zid-ana ruled for 28800 years. 1 king; he ruled for 28800 years. ThenLarag fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Zimbir. In Zimbir, En-men-dur-ana became king; he ruled for 21000 years. 1 king; he ruled for 21000 years. Then Zimbir fell (?) and the kingship was taken to Curuppag. In Curuppag, Ubara-Tutu became king; he ruled for 18600 years. 1 king; he ruled for 18600 years. In 5 cities 8 kings; they ruled for 241200 years. Then the flood swept over.

40-94After the flood had swept over, and the kingship had descended from heaven, the kingship was in Kic. In Kic, Jucur became king; he ruled for 1200 years. Kullassina-bel ruled for 960 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 900) years. Nanjiclicma ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 670 (?) years. En-tarah-anaruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 420 years ……, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Babum …… ruled for (ms. P2+L2 has:) 300 years. Puannum ruled for 840 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 240) years. Kalibum ruled for 960 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 900) years. Kalumum ruled for 840 (mss. P3+BT14, Su1 have instead: 900) years. Zuqaqip ruled for 900 (ms. Su1 has instead: 600) years. (In mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5, the 10th and 11th rulers of the dynasty precede the 8th and 9th.) Atab (mss. P2+L2, P3+BT14, P5 have instead: Aba) ruled for 600 years. Macda, the son of Atab, ruled for 840 (ms. Su1 has instead: 720) years. Arwium, the son of Macda, ruled for 720 years. Etana, the shepherd, who ascended to heaven and consolidated all the foreign countries, became king; he ruled for 1500 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 635) years. Balih, the son of Etana, ruled for 400 (mss. P2+L2, Su1 have instead: 410) years. En-me-nuna ruled for 660 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 621) years. Melem-Kic, the son of En-me-nuna, ruled for 900 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1560 are the years of the dynasty of En-me-nuna . Barsal-nuna, the son of En-me-nuna, (mss. P5, P3+BT14 have instead: Barsal-nuna) ruled for 1200 years. Zamug, the son of Barsal-nuna, ruled for 140 years. Tizqar, the son of Zamug, ruled for 305 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1620 + X ……. Ilku ruled for 900 years. Iltasadum ruled for 1200 years. En-men-barage-si, who made the land of Elam submit, became king; he ruled for 900 years. Aga, the son of En-men-barage-si, ruled for 625 years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 1525 are the years of the dynasty of En-men-barage-si. 23 kings; they ruled for 24510 years, 3 months, and 3 1/2 days. Then Kic was defeated and the kingship was taken to E-ana.

95-133In E-ana, Mec-ki-aj-gacer, the son of Utu, became lord and king; he ruled for 324 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 325) years. Mec-ki-aj-gacer entered the sea and disappeared. Enmerkar, the son of Mec-ki-aj-gacer, the king of Unug, who built Unug (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have instead: under whom Unug was built), became king; he ruled for 420 (ms. TL has instead: 900 + X) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 745 are the years of the dynasty of Mec-ki-aj-gacer. (ms TL adds instead: ……; he ruled for 5 + X years.) Lugalbanda, the shepherd, ruled for 1200 years. Dumuzid, the fisherman, whose city was Kuara, ruled for 100 (ms. TL has instead: 110) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) He captured En-me-barage-si single-handed. Gilgamec, whose father was a phantom (?), the lord of Kulaba, ruled for 126 years. Ur-Nungal, the son of Gilgamec, ruled for 30 years. Udul-kalama, the son of Ur-Nungal (ms. Su1 has instead: Ur-lugal), ruled for 15 years. La-ba’cum ruled for 9 years. En-nun-tarah-ana ruled for 8 years. Mec-he, the smith, ruled for 36 years. Melem-ana (ms. Su2 has instead: Til-kug (?) ……) ruled for 6 (ms. Su2 has instead: 900) years. Lugal-kitun (?) ruled for36 (ms. Su2 has instead: 420) years. 12 kings; they ruled for 2310 (ms. Su2 has instead: 3588) years. Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

134-147In Urim, Mec-Ane-pada became king; he ruled for 80 years. Mec-ki-aj-Nanna (ms. P2+L2 has instead: Mec-ki-aj-nuna), the son of Mec-Ane-pada, became king; he ruled for 36 (ms. P2+L2 has instead: 30) years. Elulu ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 25 years. Baluluruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 36 years. (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2 have:) 4 kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2+L2, P3+BT14 have:) 171 years. Then Urim was defeated and the kingship was taken to Awan.

148-159In Awan, …… became king; he ruled for …… years. …… ruled for …… years. …… ruled for 36 years. 3 kings; they ruled for 356 years. Then Awan was defeated and the kingship was taken to Kic.

160-178In Kic, Susuda, the fuller, became king; he ruled for 201 + X years. Dadasig ruled for (ms. vD has:) 81 years. Mamagal, the boatman, ruled for 360 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 420) years. Kalbum, the son of Mamagal (ms. WB has instead: Magalgal), ruled for 195 (ms. L1+N1 has instead:132) years. Tuge (?) ruled for 360 years. Men-nuna, (ms. L1+N1 adds:) the son of Tuge (?), ruled for 180 years. (in mss. L1+N1, TL, the 7th and 8th rulers of the dynasty are in reverse order) …… ruled for 290 years. Lugalju ruled for 360 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 420) years. 8 kings; they ruled for 3195 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 3792) years. Then Kic was defeated and the kingship was taken to Hamazi.

179-185In Hamazi, Hadanic became king; he ruled for 360 years. 1 king; he ruled for 360 years. Then Hamazi was defeated and the kingship was taken (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: was returned a second time) to Unug.

(In mss. IB, L1+N1, TL, the 2nd dynasty of Unug of ll. 185-191 is preceded by the 2nd dynasty of Urim of ll. 192-203.)

186-192In Unug, En-cakanca-ana became king; he ruled for 60 years. Lugal-ure (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: Lugal-kinice-dudu (?)) ruled for 120 years. Argandea ruled for 7 years. (ms. L1+N1 has:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) 187 years. Then Unug was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Urim.

193-204In Urim, Nani became king; he ruled for (ms. vD has:) 120 + X (ms. IB has instead: 54 + X) years. Mec-ki-aj-Nanna, the son of Nani, ruled for (ms. vD has:) 48 years. ……, the son (?) of ……, ruled for (ms. IB has:) 2 years. (ms. IB has:) 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) 582 (ms. TL has instead: 578) years. (ms. vD has instead: 2 kings; they ruled for 120 + X years.) Then Urim was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Adab.

205-210In Adab, Lugal-Ane-mundu became king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 90 years. (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 1 king; he ruled for (mss. L1+N1, TL have:) 90 years. Then Adab was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Mari.

211-223In Mari, Anbu (?) became king; he ruled for 30 (ms. TL has instead: 90) years. Anba (?), the son of Anbu (?), ruled for 17 (ms. TL has instead: 7) years. Bazi, the leatherworker, ruled for 30 years. Zizi, the fuller, ruled for 20 years. Limer, the gudu priest, ruled for 30 years. Carrum-iterruled for 9 (ms. TL has instead: 7) years. 6 kings; they ruled for 136 (ms. TL has instead: 184) years. Then Mari was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Kic.

224-231In Kic, Kug-Bau, the woman tavern-keeper, who made firm the foundations of Kic, became king; she ruled for 100 years. 1 king; she ruled for 100 years. Then Kic was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Akcak.

232-243In Akcak, Unzi became king; he ruled for 30 years. Undalulu ruled for 6 (mss. L1+N1, S have instead: 12) years. Urur ruled for (ms. IB has instead: was king (?) for) 6 years. Puzur-Nirah ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:) 20 years. Icu-Il ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, Su1 have:)24 years. Cu-Suen, the son of Icu-Il, ruled for (mss. IB, L1+N1, S, TL have:) 7 (ms. Su1 has instead: 24) years. (mss. S, Su1, TL have:) 6 kings; they ruled for (mss. L1+N1, S, TL have:) 99 (ms. Su1 has instead: 116) years (ms. IB has instead: 5 kings; they ruled for (ms. IB has:) 87 years). ThenAkcak was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Akcak was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Kic.

(mss. IB, S, Su1, Su3+Su4 list the 3rd and 4th dynasty of Kic of ll. 224-231 and ll. 244-258, respectively, as one dynasty)

244-258In Kic, Puzur-Suen, the son of Kug-Bau, became king; he ruled for 25 years. Ur-Zababa, the son of Puzur-Suen, ruled for 400 (mss. P3+BT14, S have instead: 6) (ms. IB has instead: 4 + X) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 131 are the years of the dynasty of Kug-Bau. Zimudar (ms. TL has instead: Ziju-iake) ruled for 30 (ms. IB has instead: 30 + X) years. Uß³i-watar, the son of Zimudar (ms. TL has instead: Ziju-iake), ruled for 7 (ms. S has instead: 6) years. Ectar-muti ruled for 11 (ms. Su1 has instead: 17 (?)) years. Icme-Camac ruled for 11 years. (ms. Su1 adds:) Cu-ilicu ruled for 15 years. Nanniya, the jeweller, (ms. Su1 has instead: Zimudar) (ms. IB has instead: ……) ruled for 7 (ms. S has instead: 3) years. 7 kings; they ruled for 491 (ms. Su1 has instead: 485) years (ms. S has instead: 8 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) 586 years). Then Kic was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Kic was abolished) and the kingship was taken (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: was returned a third time) to Unug.

(ms. IB omits the 3rd dynasty of Unug of ll. 258-263)

259-265In Unug, Lugal-zage-si became king; he ruled for 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 34) years. 1 king; he ruled for 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 34) years. Then Unug was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Unug was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Agade.

266-296In Agade, Sargon, whose father was a gardener, the cupbearer of Ur-Zababa, became king, the king of Agade, who built Agade (ms. L1+N1 has instead: under whom Agade was built); he ruled for 56 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 55) (ms. TL has instead: 54) years. Rimuc, the son of Sargon, ruled for 9 (ms. IB has instead: 7) (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 15) years. Man-icticcu, the older brother of Rimuc, the son of Sargon, ruled for 15 (ms. L1+N1 has instead: 7) years. Naram-Suen, the son of Man-icticcu, ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P3+BT14 have:) 56 years. Car-kali-carri, the son ofNaram-Suen, ruled for (ms. L1+N1, Su+Su4 have:) 25 (ms. P3+BT14 has instead: 24) years. (ms. P3+BT14 adds:) 157 are the years of the dynasty of Sargon. Then who was king? Who was the king? (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: who was king? Who indeed was king?) Irgigi was king, Imi was king, Nanûm was king (in mss. L1+N1, Su3+Su4, Imi and Nanûm are in reverse order) , Ilulu was king, and the (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) 4 of them ruled for only (mss. P3+BT14, S have:) 3 years. Dudu ruled for 21 years. Cu-Durul, the son of Dudu, ruled for 15 (ms. IB has instead: 18) years.11 kings; they ruled for 181 years (ms. S has instead: 12 kings; they ruled for (ms. S has:) 197 years) (mss. Su1, Su3+Su4, which omit Dudu and Cu-Durul, have instead: 9 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su1 has:) 161 (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 177) years. Then Agade was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Agade was abolished) and the kingship was taken to Unug.

297-307In Unug, Ur-nijin became king; he ruled for 7 (mss. IB, S have instead: 3) (ms. Su1 has instead: 15) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 30) years. Ur-gigir, the son of Ur-nijin, ruled for 6 (ms. IB has instead: 7) (ms. Su1 has instead: 15) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 7) years. Kuda ruled for 6 years. Puzur-ili ruled for 5 (ms. IB has instead: 20) years. Ur-Utu ruled for 6 (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: Ur-Utu), the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 25 (ms. Su1 has instead: Lugal-melem, the son of Ur-gigir, ruled for 7) years. 5 kings; they ruled for 30 (ms. IB has instead: 43) (mss. PÝ+Ha, S have instead: 26) years (ms. Su3+Su4, which omits Kuda and Puzur-ili, has instead: 3 kings; they ruled for (ms. Su3+Su4 has:) 47 years). Unug was defeated (ms. S has instead: Then the reign of Unug was abolished) and the kingship was taken to the army (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: land) ofGutium.

308-334In the army (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: land) of Gutium, at first no king was famous; they were their own kings and ruled thus for 3 years (ms. L1+N1 has instead: they had no king; they ruled themselves for 5 years). Then Inkicuc (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: ……) ruled for 6 (ms. L1+Ni1 has instead: 7) years. Zarlagab ruled for 6 years. Culme (ms. L1+N1 has instead: Yarlagac) ruled for 6 years. Silulumec (ms. Mi has instead: Silulu) ruled for 6 (ms. G has instead: 7) years. Inimabakec ruled for 5 (ms. Mi has instead: Duga ruled for 6) years. Igecauc ruled for 6 (ms. Mi has instead: Ilu-an (?) ruled for 3) years. Yarlagab ruled for 15 (ms. Mi has instead: 5) years. Ibate ruled for 3 years. Yarla (ms. L1+N1 has instead: Yarlangab (?)) ruled for 3 years. Kurum (ms. L1+N1 has instead: ……) ruled for 1 (ms. Mi has instead: 3) years. Apil-kin ruled for 3 years. La-erabum(?) ruled for 2 years. Irarum ruled for 2 years. Ibranum ruled for 1 year. Hablum ruled for 2 years. Puzur-Suen, the son of Hablum, ruled for 7 years. Yarlaganda ruled for 7 years. …… ruled for 7 years. Tiriga (?) ruled for 40 days. 21 kings; they ruled for (ms. L1+N1 has:) 124 years and 40 days(ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 25 years). Then the army of Gutium was defeated (ms. TL has instead: destroyed) and the kingship was taken to Unug.

335-340In Unug, Utu-hejal became king; he ruled for 427 years, …… days (ms. IB has instead: 26 years, 2 + X months, and 15 days) (ms. J has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days) (ms. TL has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days). 1 king; he ruled for 427 years, …… days (ms. J has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 15 days) (ms. TL has instead: 7 years, 6 months, and 5 days). Then Unug was defeated and the kingship was taken to Urim.

341-354In Urim, Ur-Namma became king; he ruled for 18 years. Culgi, the son of Ur-Namma, ruled for 46 (mss. Su3+Su4, TL have instead: 48) (ms. P5 has instead: 58) years. Amar-Suena, the son of Culgi, ruled for 9 (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 25) years. Cu-Suen, the son of Amar-Suena, ruled for 9 (ms. P5 has instead: 7) (ms. Su1 has instead: 20 + X) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 16) years. Ibbi-Suen, the son of Cu-Suen, ruled for 24 (mss. P5, Su1 have instead: 25) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 15) (ms. TL has instead: 23 (?)) years. 4 kings; they ruled for 108 years (mss. J, P5, Su1, Su3+Su4 have instead: 5 kings; they ruled for (ms. P5 has:) 117 (ms. Su1 has instead: 120 + X) (ms. Su3+Su4 has instead: 123) years). Then Urim was defeated (ms. P5 has instead: Then the reign of Urim was abolished). (ms. Su3+Su4 adds:) The very foundation of Sumer was torn out (?). The kingship was taken to Isin.

355-377In Isin, Icbi-Erra became king; he ruled for 33 (ms. P5 has instead: 32) years. Cu-ilicu, the son of Icbi-Erra, ruled for 20 (ms. P5 has instead: 10) (ms. Su1 has instead: 15) years. Iddin-Dagan, the son of Cu-ilicu, ruled for 21 (ms. Su1 has instead: 25) years. Icme-Dagan, the son of Iddin-Dagan, ruled for (mss. P2, P5 have:) 20 (ms. Mi has instead: 18) years. Lipit-Ectar, the son of Icme-Dagan (ms. P2 has instead: Iddin-Dagan), ruled for (mss. L1+N1, P2, P5 have:) 11 years. Ur-Ninurta (mss. L1+N1, P2 add:) , the son of Ickur — may he have years of abundance, a good reign, and a sweet life — ruled for (ms. P5 has:) 28 years. Bur-Suen, the son of Ur-Ninurta, ruled for 21 years. Lipit-Enlil, the son of Bur-Suen, ruled for 5 years. Erra-imitti ruled for 8 (mss. P5, TL have instead: 7) years. (ms. P5 adds:) …… ruled for …… 6 months. Enlil-bani ruled for 24 years.Zambiya ruled for 3 years. Iter-pica ruled for 4 years. Ur-dul-kuga ruled for 4 years. Suen-magir ruled for 11 years. (ms. P5 adds:) Damiq-ilicu, the son of Suen-magir, ruled for 23 years. 14 kings; they ruled for 203 years (ms. P5 has instead: 225 years and 6 months).

(Mss. P2+L2, L1+N1 and P4+Ha conclude with a summary of the post-diluvian dynasties; the translation of ll. 378-431 uses numerical data from each mss. but follows the wording of P2+L2 and L1+N1)

378-431A total of 39 kings ruled for 14409 + X years, 3 months and 3 1/2 days, 4 times in Kic. A total of 22 kings ruled for 2610 + X years, 6 months and 15 days, 5 times in Unug. A total of 12 kings ruled for 396 years, 3 times in Urim. A total of 3 kings ruled for 356 years, once in Awan. A total of 1 king ruled for 420 years, once in Hamazi.
16 lines missing
A total of 12 (?) kings ruled for 197 (?) years, once in Agade. A total of 21 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 23) kings ruled for 125 years and 40 days (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 99 years), once in the army of Gutium. A total of 11 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 16) kings ruled for 159 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 226) years, once in Isin. There are 11 cities, cities in which the kingship was exercised. A total of 134 (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 139) kings, who altogether ruled for 28876 + X (ms. P4+Ha has instead: 3443 + X) years. 21.

Black, J.A., Cunningham, G., Fluckiger-Hawker, E, Robson, E., and Zólyomi, G., The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature (http://www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/), Oxford 1998-.

Copyright © J.A. Black, G. Cunningham, E. Robson, and G. Zólyomi 1998, 1999, 2000; J.A. Black, G. Cunningham, E. Flückiger-hawker, E. Robson, J. Taylor, and G. Zólyomi 2001. The authors have asserted their moral rights.

The Sumerian king list: composite text

The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature

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