Mysterious tribe brought to Europe the wheel and the basis of language


A mysterious group of humans stormed in from the east into Western Europe 4,500 years ago, with technologies such as the wheel but many other unusual features that were unknown at that point in history, they also came with an ancestor language of many modern languages according to researchers. There are traces of these eastern emigrants in the genomes of almost all contemporary Europeans, according to researchers who analyzed data from the genome of nearly 100 ancient Europeans. According to scholars, the first Homo sapiens to colonize Europe were hunter-gatherers who arrived from Africa through the Middle East about 45,000 years ago. Neanderthals and other archaic human species had begun roaming the continent much earlier.

ADAPTED FROM R. BOUCKAERT ET AL., SCIENCE (2012)
ADAPTED FROM R. BOUCKAERT ET AL., SCIENCE (2012)

Archaeology and Ancient DNA suggests that farmers in the Middle East began flowing into Europe 8,000 years ago, replacing hunter-gatherers in some areas and mixing with them in others. But a “revolutionary” study of the genomes of ancient and contemporary European echoed not only of these two waves from the Middle East but also from a third enigmatic group that could come from further east bringing a huge amount of improvements to humans.

To further pin down the origins of this ghost lineage, a team led by David Reich, evolutionary and popular geneticist at Harvard Medical School in Boston, Massachusetts, analyzed the nuclear DNA of the bodies of 69 people who lived in Europe between 8000 and 3000 years ago. They also examined the genome data previously published by 25 other ancient Europeans and also studied Ötzi, the ‘Iceman’, who was around 5300 years ago, discovered on the border between Italy and Austria.

Their analysis confirmed the arrival of farmers from the Middle East to Europe between 8,000 and 7,000 years ago. But the team also found evidence of a previously unknown migration, several thousand years later. The DNA recovered from shepherds living in the west of Russia about 5,000 years ago was very similar to individuals which were 4,500 years old from Germany, who were part of a group known as the culture of the Corded Ware.

Pastors, called Yamnaya lived in present-day Russia and Ukraine and “represent a massive migration in the heart of Europe from its eastern periphery,” say Reich

A map showing the approximate extent of the yamna culture between 3200 y2300 a. C. The culture of corded pottery (Corded Ware), globular amphora culture (Globular Amphora) and Baden culture are mentioned.
A map showing the approximate extent of the yamna culture between 3200 y2300 a. C.
The culture of corded pottery (Corded Ware), globular amphora culture (Globular Amphora) and Baden culture are mentioned.

The ancestors of the Yamnaya survive in varying degrees in the genomes of contemporary Europeans, with the northern groups such as Norwegian, Scottish and Lithuanian proving to have a stronger bond to this ancestral lineage. The geographic extent of the Yamnaya migration is unclear, nor its nature. But Reich’s team says it is possible that Eastern immigrants fully replaced the existing populations in Germany.

In addition, researchers argue that the Yamnaya imported a part of the family of Indo-European languages in Europe. The origin of these languages which include Slavic, Romance and Germanic as well as many of the languages spoken in the subcontinent of South Asia are embroiled in controversy.

Pontic_Caspian_climate

Some researchers say that these languages were spread by farmers in the Middle East 8,500 years ago. But Reich and his team say their data is more consistent with the “steppe hypothesis” favored by other researchers, that shepherds who lived around the Black and Caspian Seas spread their languages around 6,000 years ago, after the domestication of the horse and the invention of the wheel, which basically allowed them to start traveling great distances.


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2 Comments

  1. I beg to differ you are right about the Anatolian Farmers Theory or Kurgan Footsteppes Hypothesis as far as Indo European Languages go. If you read in the Glossary of Spencer Wells “Deep Ancestry” book though he admits he can’t trace them back to the San Khoisan Bushman… Haplogroup R1a is mysterious and coincides with the Aryan Invasion theory. I’m sorry but if you wan’t to learn about Genetics and Ancient Ancestry or Archaic Hominid Ancestry read Spencer Wells Svante Paabo of Max Plancke in Germany and Chris Stringer who come out with the Out of Africa theory but recanted since more information is coming in from Multiregional Hypothesis or Out of Africa 2 Hypothesis meaning that humans have been traveling back and forth from Europe to Africa. S. Saharan Africans don’t have Neanderthal nor Denisovan DNA unless they were brought back to Africa like they have in the Cameroonians which are R1b but not European meaning that they have the same Y DNA from a European Tribe many thousands of years ago. Ancient Africans Capoids “San Bushman” didn’t introduce the fucking wheel language or anything else as far as I’m concerned. Study up on your shit next article. It’s embarrassing FFS.

    1. BTW. I’m more inclined to believe the Kurgan Footsteppes Hypothesis than the Anatolian Farmers Theory. Mention that next time too… if you wanna bring up etymology I don’t believe we learned language from Africans either. FOH with that BS…

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