Turin Royal Canon: An ancient Papyrus that proves ‘Gods’ ruled over Ancient Egypt


The final two lines of the column, which seem to represent a resume of the entire document are extremely interesting and remind us of the Sumerian King list. They read: ‘… Venerables Shemsu-Hor, 13,420 years; Reigns before the Shemsu-Hor, 23,200 years; Total 36,620 years’.


Image credit: saharazul.blogspot.com
Turin Royal Canon at display at the Egyptian Museum in Turin. Image credit: saharazul.blogspot.com

There is a time in the history of ancient Egypt where mainstream scholars are surrounded by countless enigmas they are unable to answer.

According to two ancient texts, there was a time in ancient Egypt, before the land of the Pharaohs was ruled by mortals where beings that came from the heavens reigned over the land. These mysterious beings are referred to as ‘Gods’ or ‘Demigods’ that lived and ruled over ancient Egypt for hundreds of years.

Known as the Turin King List, the ancient document is the ultimate piece that could help clarify the thin line dividing mortal rulers and gods in ancient times. The Turin papyrus –referred to by many as the Turin Royal Canon—is an ancient text written in the hieratic language (a cursive form of Egyptian hieroglyphics; used especially by the priests). Scholars believe that the original papyrus was a list that included over 300 names detailing precisely the years, months and days of each reign of the kings that ruled over the lands of ancient Egypt.

The papyrus was originally a tax roll, but on its back the most extensive king list of ancient Egypt was written down with extreme precision describing what mainstream scholars call ‘mythical kings’ such as gods, demigods, and spirits while it also accounts for the mortal Pharaohs that ruled over ancient Egypt. This is where many scholars cannot find common ground since some claim that it is impossible to differentiate mortal Pharaohs from Gods and Demigods and if mortal Pharaohs did exist, how can we prove that the alleged Gods and Demigods did not?

This ancient texts is considered as the most extensive list of Ancient Egyptian Kings ever found and is considered the basis for most of the chronology that predates the reign of Ramesses II.

The Turin Papyrus describing Zep Tepi
The Turin Papyrus describing Zep Tepi

Divided into eleven columns, the Turin Royal Canon is distributed in the following manner:

Column 1 — Gods of Ancient Egypt
Column 2 — Rows 1-10 Spirits and mythical kings
Column 2 — Rows 11-25 (Dynasties 1-2)
Column 3 — Rows 1-25 (Dynasties 2-5)
Column 4 — Rows 1-26 (Dynasties 6-8/9/10)
Column 5 — Rows 12-25 (Dynasties 11-12)
Column 6 — Rows 1-2 (Dynasties 12-13)
Column 7 — Rows 1-23 (Dynasty 13)
Column 8 — Rows 1-27 (Dynasty 13-14)
Column 9 — Rows 1-30 (Dynasty 14)
Column 10 — Rows 1-30 (Dynasties 14-15)
Column 11 — Rows 1-17 (Dynasties 16-17)

Regrettably, since the Papyrus is in very bad condition, names and titles of some kings are still being disputed by mainstream scholars. However, this does not diminish its importance since it is a complete historical record of Pre-Pharaonic Egypt.

The Papyrus of Turin clearly indicates the existence of NINE dynasties that correspond to the predynastic Pharaohs and among them are the Venerables of Memphis’, ‘the Venerables of the North’ and, lastly, the Shemsu Hor (the Companions, or Followers of Horus) who ruled until the time of Menes, the first mortal Pharaoh of Ancient Egypt.

It is important to mention that ancient Egyptian chronology is accepted from Menes and onwards. However, mainstream scholars tend to disagree when discussing the time before Menes when alleged ‘gods’ ruled over the land of the Pharaohs.

According to reports currently, around 50% of the original Papyrus remains missing.

The final two lines of the column, which seem to represent a resume of the entire document are extremely interesting and remind us of the Sumerian King list. They read: ‘… Venerables Shemsu-Hor, 13,420 years; Reigns before the Shemsu-Hor, 23,200 years; Total 36,620 years’.

There is an ongoing debate going on between numerous researchers whether or not the enigmatic kings who ruled before mortal Pharos were real or not. Many argue that it be nearly impossible to deny their existence since just as the rule of mortal pharaohs is recorded in the ancient Papyrus so is the reign of the enigmatic beings referred to as Gods and Demigods.

Interestingly, according to Eusebius of Caesarea, who was a Roman historian, exegete, and Christian polemicist of Greek descent, a dynasty of gods ruled Egypt for 13.9 thousand years: the first was god Vulcan, the god who discovered fire, after him Sosis of the Sun, Isis, and Osiris of Saturn, Typhoon brother of Osiris, and Horus, the son of Isis and Osiris. They were followed by a dynasty of heroes and demigods who ruled for 11,025 years. This makes it a total of 24.925 years of reign. Approximately around 3000 BC, the first “human” Pharaoh would take rule as an Egyptian pharaoh.


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